Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2.0.1) includes new features and enhancements that make it an attractive upgrade target for existing Oracle databases. Moving to Oracle Database 12c Release 2 may be part of an effort that includes moving to newly purchased server hardware, migrating to different storage architectures such as Oracle Automatic Storage Management, changing the database character set, migrating to a completely different operating system, or migrating to the Oracle Cloud.
Because upgrade and migration scenarios can differ in many ways, Oracle provides multiple methods for you to upgrade and migrate your databases to Oracle Database 12c Release 2. This white paper outlines these upgrade and migration methods. You will learn about different use cases and key factors to consider when choosing the method that best fits your requirements.

Database Upgrade
The act of upgrading an Oracle database involves modifying the data dictionary to be compatible with a newer version of Oracle database software. Typical actions that may be part of a database upgrade include:
» Adding, dropping, or modifying columns in system tables and views
» Creating new system packages or procedures
» Modifying existing system packages or procedures
» Creating, modifying, or dropping database users, roles, and privileges
» Modifying seed data that is used by Oracle database components
All of these actions affect the data dictionary of your database. They do not affect the data stored in your user or application tablespaces. Therefore, the sheer volume of data stored in your Oracle database has little or no bearing on a database upgrade.
Database Migration
The term “migration” applies to several different types of changes that can be applied to an Oracle database. In addition to database version, these can include a change to any or all of the following:
» Computer server
» Storage architecture
» Character set
» Operating system
» Schema topology (changing the partitioning scheme)
» Encryption
» Compression
» Database architecture (moving from non-CDB to PDB)
Database migration differs from database upgrade in two important ways. First, database migration generally involves moving or modifying the user and application data in the database. This means that the size of your database has a dramatic impact on your database migration project. Second, any of the above migrations can be performed on a database without upgrading it to a new version. This white paper will discuss techniques that can be used to perform both an upgrade to Oracle Database 12c and a migration simultaneously

Multitenant Architecture
Oracle Database 12c introduced a new multitenant architecture. It enables an Oracle database to contain a portable collection of schemas, schema objects, and nonschema objects that appears to an Oracle Net client as a separate database. This self-contained collection is called a pluggable database (PDB). A multitenant container
database (CDB) is an Oracle database that includes zero, one, or many user-created PDBs. This new architecture enables customers to easily consolidate multiple databases and introduces another very important type of database migration for customers to consider: migration to a PDB.
In some cases, migrating from traditional database architecture (e.g. Oracle Database 11g) to a PDB can be combined with other database upgrade or migration tasks into a single operation. In other cases, migration into a PDB may involve an additional step. The steps for migrating an existing or non-CDB database to a PDB will be described under each upgrade or migration technique in this white paper.
Selecting a Database Upgrade or Migration Method
With several upgrade and migrations available, choosing the best upgrade or migration method for a particular project requires an analysis of several important project characteristics. Each of these characteristics can influence the suitability of a given method when you upgrade or migrate to Oracle Database 12c:
» The version from which you are upgrading or migrating, down to the patch set level
» The source and destination operating system and version
» The source and destination hardware platforms and their endian characteristics
» Any plans to change the real data layout or format, such as changing the character set, partitioning, encryption, or compression
» Availability requirements – the amount of downtime allowed for the upgrade or migration project
» The size of the database to be migrated
» Whether the destination of the upgrade is an Oracle Database 12c Release 2 PDB
There is no single upgrade or migration method that is the best option for all possible upgrade and migration scenarios. However, there is a method that is best for any given scenario based on the above factors. Direct Upgrade to Oracle Database 12c Release 2
A direct upgrade is one where either the Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) or command-line upgrade script is used to upgrade your database to Oracle Database 12c. Direct upgrade is supported when the source database is running one of the releases shown in the following table.

Oracle Database 12c: Admin, Install and Upgrade Accelerated
Oracle Database 12c: Administration Workshop
Oracle Database 12c: Backup and Recovery Workshop
Oracle Database 12c: Data Guard Administration
Oracle Database 12c: High Availability New Features
Oracle Database 12c: Install and Upgrade Workshop
Oracle Database 12c: Managing Multitenant Architecture
Oracle Database 12c: New Features for Administrators
Oracle Database 12c: Performance Management and Tuning
Oracle Database: SQL Tuning for Developers
Oracle Database 12c: Clusterware Administration
Oracle Database 12c: RAC Administration
Oracle Database 12c: Security
Exadata Database Machine: 12c Administration Workshop
Oracle GoldenGate 12c : Fundamentals for Oracle
A higher version or a release independent version of any listed course will fulfill the hands on training requirement.

All Oracle Database 12c R2 versions of these courses (if available) are also accepted

Courses can be instructor-led in-class (ILT), a live virtual class (LVC), training on demand (TOD), or Learning Subscription. Self-study courses (labeled as 'Self-Study' in the course format) are great preparation tools, but do not fulfill the training requirement. Course must be delivered by Oracle University Training Center, Oracle Authorized Education Center, Oracle Authorized Partner Oracle Academy or Oracle Workforce Development Program.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug