Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Title : Oracle Java Cloud Service Certified Associate
Exam ID : 1Z0-161
Exam Duration : 120
Questions in test : 67
Passing Score : 63%
Format : Multiple Choice
Exam Center : Pearson VUE - Oracle
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JCS Overview - Describe the Cloud today and the requirements for Cloud success; and differentiate the 3 major types of cloud (private, hybrid, public) and the differences between IaaS, Paas, and SaaS clouds
- Describe the three Oracle cloud offerings and identify the features of the Oracle Java Cloud
- Identify dependencies for JCS, components of the JCS architecture, and how you interact with JCS
- Log in to your Cloud account
- Select Oracle Cloud Services from the Store, Add a service to the shopping cart and purchase services
- Identify the JCS main use cases
- Identify key features of JCS provisioning, patching, backup/restore, scaling, data caching & scaling
- Identify the key components for interacting with JCS; and create the JCS instance
- Perform the preparatory steps necessary before creating a Java Cloud Service; Create cloud storage containers for JCS and DB
- Identify the JCS management tool options and what they do
- Recognize the key components of the JCS admin diagram
- Access JCS WebLogic Server Domains and perform basic functions; Differentiate the basics of WebLogic Scripting Tool (WLST)
- Access the Oracle Fusion Middleware Control
- Identify how to use the REST API to control JCS Life Cycle
- Use either Linux or Windows to connect to JCS via SSH; Configure the SSH tunnel; and Identify the default listening ports
- Describe Oracle Coherence, what it supports, what it does, and key terms; Define coherence clusters or DataGrid
- Identify the features/functions of the 3 JCS options and the Apps Composer,
- Identify the features, functions, and benefits of JCS SaaS extensions; and differentiate between JCS and JCS-SaaS extensions.
- Identify the provisioning and scaling differences between JCS and JCS-SX; and the application standards supported by JCS-SaaS extension
- Describe the functions of Java Service Control and the Developer Cloud Service
- Identify the features of the Oracle Cloud Marketplace; and the Oracle Traffic Director (OTD)
- Describe OTD administration topology and architecture; and compare OTD to WLS Domain Model
- Navigate the Java EE Application Server Architecture; describe the WLS domain components; and use the Webogic Server Administration tool Development and Deployment - Describe the tasks to deploy applications in JCS
- Use an IDE to deploy applications in JCS
- Deploy applications via FMW control, WebLogic Server Admin Control, WLST commands
- Undeploy applications
- Access applications deployed in the cloud
- Describe how to develop applications for use in Java Cloud Services
- Use Database objects (from the Oracle Database Cloud Service) in a Java Cloud application
- Gather required information on the application at the source [on premise] environment
- Using the conventional export/import method, transfer data to the JCS environment
- Setup the Fusion Middleware artifacts in the JCS environment
- Migrate the application artifacts to the JCS environment User and Instance Management - Create new JCS users and assign roles
- Batch assign JCS roles
- Modify user login details and roles
- Recognize the differences between JCS, VM host and WebLogic users.
- View, Suspend and Delete Instances
- Scale JCS Instances
- Backup & Restore JCS Instances
- Patch a JCS Instance
- Identify the capabilities of the REST API Co-existence and Extensions - Describe the Oracle Java Cloud Service - SaaS Extension; and given lists, select the features of the Oracle Java Cloud Service - SaaS Extension
- Identify Java EE technologies supported for Application development on the Oracle Java Cloud Service - SaaS Extension
- Recognize how JCS-SaaS extension integrates with other cloud solutions; and associated limitations.
- Recognize guidelines for building Java EE and ADF applications for the Oracle Java Cloud Service - SaaS Extension
- Identify guidelines for performing common operationssuch as logging, persistence, and local file access
- Explain the features of the Oracle Java Cloud Service - SaaS Extension Software Development Kit (SDK), how to use it, and how to integrate with IDEs
- Explain the regions of the Oracle Java Cloud Service - SaaS Extension Control Monitoring and Troubleshooting - Sequence the steps for tuning your application environment
- Metrics: identify metrics provided by the Java Cloud Services Control Console, the Fusion Middleware control console, and by the WebLogic Administration Console
- Identify the available tools, and their capabilities, that can be used to monitor the WebLogic Server.
- Describe the capabilities of Oracle Enterprise Pack for Eclipse (“OEPE”)
- Deploy applications to Java Cloud Services
- Troubleshoot an application
- Use whitelists to prevent problems from occurring
- Recognize common problems that may be encountered in Java Cloud Services
- Troubleshoot and find problems related to Java Cloud Services Security - Given a diagram, complete the diagram with WebLogic Server (WLS) security architecture components
- Configure security realms
- Configure users and groups
- Configure roles
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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug