Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 1Z0-809
Exam Name : Java SE 8 Programmer II
Vendor Name : Oracle
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Exam Title: Java SE 8 Programmer II Exam Number: 1Z0-809 Format: Multiple Choice Duration: 150 minutes Number of Questions: 85 Passing Score: 65% Validated Against: This test is validated against Java SE 8. Java Class Design
Implement encapsulation
Implement inheritance including visibility modifiers and composition
Implement polymorphism
Override hashCode, equals, and toString methods from Object class
Create and use singleton classes and immutable classes
Develop code that uses static keyword on initialize blocks, variables, methods, and classes

Generics and Collections
Create and use a generic class
Create and use ArrayList, TreeSet, TreeMap, and ArrayDeque objects
Use java.util.Comparator and java.lang.Comparable interfaces
Collections Streams and Filters
Iterate using forEach methods of Streams and List
Describe Stream interface and Stream pipeline
Filter a collection by using lambda expressions
Use method references with Streams

Java Stream API
Develop code to extract data from an object using peek() and map() methods including primitive versions of the map() method
Search for data by using search methods of the Stream classes including findFirst, findAny, anyMatch, allMatch, noneMatch
Develop code that uses the Optional class
Develop code that uses Stream data methods and calculation methods
Sort a collection using Stream API
Save results to a collection using the collect method and group/partition data using the Collectors class
Use flatMap() methods in the Stream API

Use Java SE 8 Date/Time API
Create and manage date-based and time-based events including a combination of date and time into a single object using
LocalDate, LocalTime, LocalDateTime, Instant, Period, and Duration
Work with dates and times across timezones and manage changes resulting from daylight savings including Format date and times values
Define and create and manage date-based and time-based events using Instant, Period, Duration, and TemporalUnit

Java File I/O (NIO.2)
Use Path interface to operate on file and directory paths
Use Files class to check, read, delete, copy, move, manage metadata of a file or directory
Use Stream API with NIO.2

Building Database Applications with JDBC
Describe the interfaces that make up the core of the JDBC API including the Driver, Connection, Statement, and ResultSet interfaces and their relationship to provider implementations
Identify the components required to connect to a database using the DriverManager class including the JDBC URL
Submit queries and read results from the database including creating statements, returning result sets, iterating through the results, and properly closing result sets, statements, and connections

Assume the following:
Missing package and import statements: If demo code do not include package or import statements, and the question does not explicitly refer to these missing statements, then assume that all demo code is in the same package, or import statements exist to support them.
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All classes are in one file
Each class is contained in a separate file, and all files are in one directory
Unintended line breaks: demo code might have unintended line breaks. If you see a line of code that looks like it has wrapped, and this creates a situation where the wrapping is significant (for example, a quoted String literal has wrapped), assume that the wrapping is an extension of the same line, and the line does not contain a hard carriage return that would cause a compilation failure.
Code fragments: A code fragment is a small section of source code that is presented without its context. Assume that all necessary supporting code exists and that the supporting environment fully supports the correct compilation and execution of the code shown and its omitted environment.
Descriptive comments: Take descriptive comments, such as "setter and getters go here," at face value. Assume that correct code exists, compiles, and runs successfully to create the described effect.

Advanced Java Class Design
Develop code that uses abstract classes and methods
Develop code that uses the final keyword
Create inner classes including static inner class, local class, nested class, and anonymous inner class
Use enumerated types including methods, and constructors in an enum type
Develop code that declares, implements and/or extends interfaces and use the @Override annotation.
Create and use Lambda expressions

Lambda Built-in Functional Interfaces
Use the built-in interfaces included in the java.util.function package such as Predicate, Consumer, Function, and Supplier
Develop code that uses primitive versions of functional interfaces
Develop code that uses binary versions of functional interfaces
Develop code that uses the UnaryOperator interface

Exceptions and Assertions
Use try-catch and throw statements
Use catch, multi-catch, and finally clauses
Use Autoclose resources with a try-with-resources statement
Create custom exceptions and Auto-closeable resources
Test invariants by using assertions

Java I/O Fundamentals
Read and write data from the console
Use BufferedReader, BufferedWriter, File, FileReader, FileWriter, FileInputStream, FileOutputStream, ObjectOutputStream, ObjectInputStream, and PrintWriter in the java.io package.

Java Concurrency
Create worker threads using Runnable, Callable and use an ExecutorService to concurrently execute tasks
Identify potential threading problems among deadlock, starvation, livelock, and race conditions
Use synchronized keyword and java.util.concurrent.atomic package to control the order of thread execution
Use java.util.concurrent collections and classes including CyclicBarrier and CopyOnWriteArrayList
Use parallel Fork/Join Framework
Use parallel Streams including reduction, decomposition, merging processes, pipelines and performance.
Localization
Read and set the locale by using the Locale object
Create and read a Properties file
Build a resource bundle for each locale and load a resource bundle in an application



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug