Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : C9060-518
Exam Name : IBM Tivoli Storage Manager V7.1.1 Administration
Vendor Name : IBM
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IBM Tivoli Storage Manager V7.1.1 and IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Extended Edition V7.1.1 help reduce backup windows and enhance resilience:

Different replication policies for retention time and number of versions can be defined on the primary and secondary Tivoli Storage Manager server, for flexible management of disaster recovery at different sites and optimal use of resources. Repairs volumes for source server from replication server for local disaster. This could be used to replace local copy storage pool tapes, reducing total cost of ownership.
More security with NIST SP800-131 compliance and support of 256-bit AES Encryption. Tivoli Storage Manager for Virtual Environments V7.1.1 helps to Excellerate backup and recovery management for virtual environments with the following new features:

Expanded Microsoft Hyper-V support to provide incremental forever backups, automatic discovery of virtual machines, automatic migration of virtual machines between hosts, restoration of virtual machines to alternate locations, and file level recovery from image backups
Simplified file-level recovery for VMware environments with a more automated mount process supporting Linux Logical Volume Management, Microsoft Windows dynamic disks Microsoft Windows GUID partitioning table disks
Integration with the VMware vSphere Web Client enabling VMware administrators to drive Tivoli Storage Manager recovery actions for selected virtual machines and view task progress directly from the vSphere Web Client interface
More control over access rights allowing administrators to limit user access by data center
Tivoli Storage Manager Operations Center V7.1.1 provides more administrative actions within the GUI. There is improved visibility for data protection diagnostics with these capabilities:

View, create, and modify client schedules and client schedule associations Visibility into server maintenance schedules for processes such as expiration, migration, reclamation, database, and storage pool backups
Centralized log views for Microsoft Windows 32 bit, Microsoft Windows 64 bit, and Linux 64 bit backup-archive clients from one central GUI to enable more efficient problem diagnosis and resolution
Email reports on client coverage, status, and overall Tivoli Storage Manager server health More control over alert definition configuration and management
Actions to manage storage pools such as editing storage pool properties and manual initiation of storage pool migration or reclamation
More detailed visibility to volume information, policy details, and active policy sets More security with NIST SP800-131 compliance
Advanced filtering for table views for more targeted listing of such items such as clients, servers, storage pools, and storage devices that meet specific search criteria
Backend capacity reporting for Tivoli Storage Manager Suite for Unified Recovery products' licensing needs Tivoli Storage Manager V7.1.1 Backup-Archive Client adds support including:

Enhanced security with support of 256-bit AES Encryption.
Microsoft Windows 2012 R2 support.
Solaris x86 support.
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Mail V7.1.1 adds support and new features including:

Individual mailbox restore usability and performance enhancements for restoring folders and messages from the mailbox restore browser.
Support for Microsoft Exchange role-based access control to limit rights available to backup and restore administrators and automatic validation of permissions during configuration.
Microsoft Windows 2012 R2 support.
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Databases V7.1.1 adds support including:

Microsoft SQL Server 2014 support.
Microsoft Windows 2012 R2 support.
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Enterprise Resource Planning V6.4.2 supports Microsoft Windows 2012 and Solaris 11:

For the Data Protection for SAP for DB2® 6.4.2 component: IBM DB2 10.1 and IBM DB2 10.5 with BLU Acceleration, which speeds analytics and reporting using dynamic in-memory columnar technologies
For the Data Protection for SAP for Oracle 6.4.2 component: Support BR*Tools version 7.4
Tivoli Storage Manager for Space Management V7.1.1 adds new features including:

Improved efficiency in handling failed cluster nodes in large General Parallel File System (GPFS™) Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) clusters that enable better cooperation and communication between HSM nodes.
More control over stub file recall that provides the ability to:
Customize when recalls are performed
Change settings at the individual file level versus the file system level
Change settings while recall processing is ongoing
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for z/OS® Media V7.1.1 and IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Extended Edition for z/OS Media V7.1.1 provide entitlement to:

Either IBM Tivoli Storage Manager V7.1.1 or IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Extended Edition V7.1.1 for AIX and Linux on System z. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Operations Center V7.1.1.
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Media Server V6.3.
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Fastback for Workstations V7.1.1 enables continuous data protection functionality and instant recovery for Microsoft Windows desktops and laptops with the addition of the following new features:

Enhanced block level backups to increase the frequency of incremental backups, and reduce network bandwidth and storage capacity consumption.
Central Administration Console migration from IBM Tivoli Integrated Portal to IBM WebSphere® Liberty Profile for a smaller footprint of around 500 MB and faster installation times with new installs in as little as 10 minutes.
Enhanced visualization of client, server, or historical storage utilization reports.
Tivoli Storage Flashcopy Manager V4.1.1 adds support for the following features:

Microsoft Windows:
SQL 2014 support
Role Based Access Control for Microsoft Exchange backup and restore
Microsoft Exchange individual mailbox recovery performance and usability enhancements
Usability enhancements for SQL
Metro Mirror and Global Mirror integration
NIST SP800-131 compliance
Configuration Wizard
Initial integration with VMware Web Client

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug