Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : C9510-401
Exam Name : IBM WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment V8.5.5 System Administ
Vendor Name : IBM
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Exam Title : IBM Certified System Administrator - WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment V8.5.5 and Liberty Profile
Exam ID : C9510-401
Exam Duration : 120 mins
Questions in exam : 65
Passing Score : 58%
Official Training : WebSphere Application Server V8.5.5 Administration
Exam Center : Pearson VUE
Real Questions : IBM WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment and Liberty Profile System Administration Real Questions
VCE practice questions : IBM C9510-401 Certification VCE Practice Test

Architecture
- Identify the components and services in a WebSphere Application Server configuration and describe how they are related or interact.
- Design various WebSphere Application Server topologies, for example, flexible management, intelligent management, mixed platform topology, network deployment cells, Liberty collectives, and ODR.
- Analyze appropriate design considerations when architecting topologies to achieve security, scalability, performance and fault tolerance.
- Demonstrate an understanding of how requests traverse various WebSphere Application Server topologies.
- Demonstrate an understanding of the administration activities for a network deployment cell including the flexible management components.
- Identify and describe the components of the WebSphere Application Server Liberty profile. 11%
Product Installation, Configuration and Maintenance
- Demonstrate an understanding of the IBM Installation Manager and IBM Packaging Utility and its role in installing, configuring, and maintaining WebSphere application servers and components both locally and remotely.
- Perform a silent installation process for WebSphere Application Server and fix pack installations.
- Perform pre and post installation verification.
- Troubleshoot installation problems.
- Create and manage Full and Liberty profiles.
- Manage nodes in a WebSphere topology, for example, managed, unmanaged nodes, flexible management and network deployment cell.
- Backup and restore configuration including the use of checkpoints. 15%
Application Management (Assembly, Deployment and Configuration)
- Explain the structure of enterprise applications, web applications, and business level applications.
- Deploy applications to a WebSphere Application Server environment.
- Configure resources, for example, data sources, JNDI, class paths, J2C providers, as required by an application.
- Use the IBM Rational Application Developer for WebSphere Software or the IBM WebSphere Application Server Developer Tools for Eclipse to examine and manipulate applications.
- Demonstrate an understanding of the administrative tasks required to take an application deployed to the Liberty profile and deploy it in a WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment environment. 9%
Administrative Tools
- Illustrate the usage of the Integrated Solutions Console (ISC) and its various tools (e.g., command assistance, runtime messages).
- Use the standard set of command line administrative tools such as wsadmin, profile management and plug-in generation.
- Use the capabilities of the Job Manager tooling including the submission of Liberty profile jobs.
- Use scripting to perform administrative tasks, for example, scripting libraries, ws_ant, wsadmin
- Write, test, and debug scripts by using the IBM Rational Application Developer for WebSphere Software or the IBM WebSphere Application Server Developer Tools for Eclipse.
- Configure or modify a WebSphere Application Server environment by using properties files and/or the monitored directory feature. 14%
Security configuration and Maintenance
- Configure user repositories.
- Configure SSL for clients and servers, for example, create certificates, populate trust stores and modify certificate expiration.
- Discuss the implications of resource security settings.
- Implement multiple security domains.
- Apply administrative and application security roles.
- Configure different authentication and authorization mechanisms, including SSO.
- Configure Java Enterprise, Liberty, Web and Web Services Security. 14%
Clustering and Workload Management
- Configure clusters in workload management topologies.
- Configure and manage the HTTP server and the web server plug-in.
- Configure distributed session management for high availability and failover scenarios, including the WebSphere eXtreme Scale option.
- Configure messaging engine policies for clustered service integration bus (SIBus) members.
- Configure high availability using core groups.
- Utilize the capabilities of the Liberty collectives. 9%
Intelligent Management and Resiliency
- Use the dynamic cluster elasticity feature.
- Create and configure On Demand Routers (ODR) and the ODR plug-in and associated service policies to enable the dynamic operations.
- Use health policies and actions to monitor and react to changing performance in the environment.
- Configure and maintain application editions. 6%
Performance Monitoring and Tuning
- Use the Tivoli Performance Viewer (TPV) to monitor the WebSphere Application Server runtime.
- Use the Tivoli Performance Viewer (TPV) Advisor and the Diagnostic Advisor to obtain advice on performance issues.
- Tune parameters, for example JVM settings, connection pools, thread pools, that affect WebSphere Application Server performance.
- Use the Performance Monitoring Infrastructure (PMI) metrics and poll MBeans for performance data.
- Configure and monitor the WebSphere Application Server caching mechanisms.
- Configure multi-cell performance management. 11%
Problem Determination
- Enable High Performance Extensible Logging (HPEL) and view HPEL data.
- Enable Cross Component Trace (XCT) and view trace data in XCT Log Viewer.
- Use tools to trigger and analyze heap dumps, javacore dumps, system core dumps and verbose Garbage Collection (GC).
- Configure diagnostic tracing.
- Use "mustgather" documentation and/or the IBM Support Assistant to collect and analyze diagnostic data or submit data to IBM Support.
- Configure, review and analyze log files for example, First Failure Data Capture (FFDC), system logs, native logs. 11%



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug