Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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CHFP exam Format | CHFP Course Contents | CHFP Course Outline | CHFP exam Syllabus | CHFP exam Objectives

Module I - Business of Health Care: Participation and successful end-of-course exam of the HFMA Business of Health Care® online program offering participants an overview of healthcare finance, risk mitigation, evolving payment models, healthcare accounting and cost analysis, strategic finance, and managing financial resources.

Module II - Operational Excellence: CHFP aspirants must also complete HFMA's Operational Excellence exam, which includes exercises and case studies on the application of business acumen in health care.

Please note HFMA membership is a required aspect for earning and maintaining the CHFP credential.

Paid student members are eligible to register for and to take both modules of the CHFP certification program (included with membership). Student members who successfully complete the CHFP requirements (two modules) will earn their designation upon assuming Professional or Business Partner level member status.

The Big Picture Healthcare environment

- Reform/Current State of US Healthcare

- Transformation Under Reform

- Payment System Overview

- The Role of Financial Management in Health Care Organizations

- Management Roles & Hierarchy

- What Keeps CFOs Up at Night=>

Financial Accounting Concepts Accounting Principles

- Analysis of Financial Statements

- Management Reports

- Accounting Terminology

- Reports for financial analysis

Cost Analysis Principles Cost Management

- Definitions

- Traditional Cost-Finding Methods

- Setting Prices

- Profit analysis

Strategic Financial Issues Basics of Strategic Planning

- Budgeting Concepts

- Variance Analysis

- Revenue & Performance Budgeting

- Controlling Operating Results

- Benchmarking, Productivity, and Cost-Benefit/Cost-Effectiveness

- Analysis

Managing Financial Resources Financing the Healthcare System: Revenue Cycle

- Working capital management

- The Use of Metrics and Data

- Long-Term Financial Resources

Looking to the Future ACA, ACOs & Bundled Payments:

Evolving Reimbursement

The Need for Business Intelligence & Analytics

Population Health Management

Aligning Clinicians and Finance Professionals to Drive Value

Accountable Care Organizations – Payer Cancers

Premium Growth in a Shifting Environment

Denials of coverage

Limitations on profits

Health Insurance Exchanges

Payer consolidations

Unsustainable rates

Payer Differentiation

Rise of Business Process Outsourcing

Consumerism and physicians

Physician –Hospital alignment

Demand for Physician Collegiality

Emerging Ancillary Positions

Physician Burnout

Physician Independence

Physician Shortages (Leakage)

Physicians as Entrepreneurs

Reform and Physician Liability

Physician – Hospital Financial


Hospital Consolidations

Hospital – Physician Alignment

Hospital Facing Bankruptcy

Provider- Payer Consolidations

Physician Engagement and Leadership

Integrated Care Delivery

Physicians Remaining


Accountable Care Organizations

Sustainability of Physician


Module I Concept Guide – It is recommended that you preview this guide prior to working through the online materials. For example, the pages in this guide associated with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) may be viewed before working in the first course, Healthcare Finance -- The Big Picture. This preview indicates the key concepts that will be covered and attunes you to areas of professional practice that may be less familiar. Feel free to make notes in this document. By taking the time to customize this guide, you can develop a handy reference tool as you continue your work in health care.

• Module II Concept Guide - It is recommended that candidates preview the key‐concept guide prior to working through this online course. The module is itself an examination with three (3) hours allowed for completion. This preview indicates the key business challenges that will be presented and attunes candidates to areas of professional practice that may be less familiar. The learner guide can then be used to focus additional outside practicing and study on unfamiliar issues

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Financial - exam Questions



Artificial Intelligence and ChatGPT are changing how universities teach future financial leaders. Students need to learn how to use AI and ChatGPT properly, understand AI’s limitations and know when they can appropriately use AI.

Close-up stock photograph showing a touchscreen monitor being used in an open plan office. A woman’s ... [+] hand is asking an AI chatbot pre-typed questions & the Artificial Intelligence website is answering.


According to Anthony Cardillo, more than 77% of companies are either using or exploring the use of AI. In fact, a number of companies have signed enterprise-wide site license agreements to use ChatGPT. Universities teach Excel skills because employers expect finance graduates to have Excel expertise. As more employers use AI, employers will expect college graduates to know how to effectively use AI tools as well. A recent survey by ResumeBuilder found that over 90% of business leaders want workers with ChatGPT experience.

Because Gen-Z has grown up using personal computers and cell phones, this generation is comfortable using technology and using the internet to find answers. However, absent guardrails, current college students can use AI and ChatGPT improperly.

Submitting Work Done By AI And ChatGPT As A Student’s Own Work

Universities expect students to submit original work. Work done using AI and ChatGPT is not original work. If a student characterizes work done using AI and ChatGPT as their own or does not indicate that they used AI or ChatGPT to complete the work, that student is committing an academic integrity violation.

Using AI And ChatGPT May Not Be Conducive To Student Learning

Many students prefer to learn by accessing materials online, instead of practicing a physical or online textbook. With Google, YouTube, AI and ChatGPT, students can often find an answer to a problem quickly and easily. However, when using these online resources, students may not understand the concepts that underly their answers.

Using AI And ChatGPT Does Not Always Provide Correct Answers

AI and ChatGPT can provide answers to a wide variety of questions and problems. However, the more ambiguous a question or problem is, the more likely it is that AI and ChatGPT will generate an incorrect answer. When I used ChatGPT to take a Bentley University Spring 2023 semester finance exam, ChatGPT only answered half of the questions correctly. Students using AI or ChatGPT may not be able to determine whether an AI generated answer is correct and may further assume that all AI generated answers are correct.

Instructors who are teaching the next generation of leaders should incorporate the following steps into their classrooms to help students with AI and ChatGPT.

When It Is Appropriate To Use AI And ChatGPT

Instructors should explain the circumstances under which AI and ChatGPT usage is acceptable. For example, students may use AI and ChatGPT when working on daily homework problems. Whereas students may not use AI and ChatGPT in term project work.

In addition, students should learn how to properly cite AI and ChatGPT usage. Instructors can easily include this type of information in a course syllabus.

When It Is Helpful To Use AI And ChatGPT

Instructors should explain when the usage of AI and ChatGPT is helpful and when it may not be helpful. For example, in a Financial Modeling Course, ChatGPT was highly effective when writing VBA code for macros. Upon completion, a student could easily evaluate the VBA code to ensure that it worked as expected. Whereas ChatGPT was not effective for preparing a capital budgeting analysis in the same Financial Modeling Course. With capital budgeting, ChatGPT did not reflect opportunity costs and sunk costs correctly. When a problem is unambiguous, ChatGPT will usually generate a correct answer. Whereas, when a problem is ambiguous, ChatGPT is less likely to arrive at a correct answer.

When an answer is arrived at using AI and ChatGPT, students should be reminded to “sanity check” the answer for reasonableness.

Understanding Concepts

Instructors should explain the concepts that underly each financial calculation and include conceptual questions in course exams. If a student does not understand the concepts behind a formula, memorizing the formula may not be useful. Students are more likely to misapply a formula that they do not understand.

For example, ChatGPT cannot determine the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) for a privately held company. Because the inputs needed to calculate a privately held company’s WACC are not readily available, qualitative judgement is needed to identify proper inputs.

Practice Communications

Instructors can help prepare students for graduation by having them explain their answers during class. When a student explains an answer, that student is demonstrating knowledge of the underlying concepts.

In addition, all students benefit by practicing their communication skills. A study prepared by the Association for Talent Development found that a lack of soft skills, including communication skills, are a challenge in the workplace. Post graduation, future finance leaders will need to communicate to a variety of company stakeholders, including, peers, supervisors, senior managers, boards of directors, debtholders, shareholders.

As AI and ChatGPT continue to improve, teaching methods will continue to change to develop future financial leaders.

Test Your Knowledge of Irish Culture with These Authentic 'Jeopardy!' Clues

Despite hosting changes and controversies since Alex Trebek’s passing in 2020, “Jeopardy!” remains one of America’s most beloved primetime game shows for decades.

On the show, three contestants compete by answering trivia questions across various categories, including history. Irish history, in particular, has proven very popular, with over 900 questions related to Irish figures, culture, and traditions.

Using J! Archive, a fan-created site documenting clues since 1984, 24/7 Tempo identified some of the most interesting and difficult questions about Irish culture ever asked on the show.

Wonder how you’d rate on the game show? Take the following pop quiz and see how you stack up.

You can also test your broader knowledge with 50 real “Jeopardy!” questions about each U.S. state.

Click here to see if you can answer these real ‘Jeopardy!’ clues about Irish culture

I’m 24, drive a ‘lousy’ car and save a lot. I’m considering a financial planner to help me invest, but will the investment gains ‘just get sucked up by the fees?’

No result found, try new keyword!Learn more While looking at Reddit the other day, I came across a question from someone wondering if they should hire a financial planner. It felt like just the kind of question they get pretty ...

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug