Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : CLO-002
Exam Name : CompTIA Cloud Essentials+
Vendor Name : CompTIA
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Exam Title : CompTIA Cloud Essentials+
Exam ID : CLO-002
Exam Duration : 75 mins
Questions in test : 70
Passing Score : 720 / 900
Exam Center : CompTIA Marketplace
Real Questions : CompTIA Cloud Essentials+ Real Questions
VCE VCE test : CompTIA CLO-002 Certification VCE Practice Test

Topic Details Cloud Concepts 24% Explain cloud principles. 1. Service models SaaS IaaS PaaS 2. Deployment models Public Private Hybrid 3. Characteristics Elastic Self-service Scalability Broad network access Pay-as-you-go Availability 4. Shared responsibility model Identify cloud networking concepts. 1. Connectivity types Direct connect VPN 2. Common access types RDP SSH HTTPS 3. Software-defined networking (SDN)
4. Load balancing
5. DNS
6. Firewall Identify cloud storage technologies. 1. Storage features Compression Deduplication Capacity on demand 2. Storage characteristics Performance Hot vs. cold 3. Storage types Object storage File storage Block storage 4. Software-defined storage
5. Content delivery network Summarize important aspects of cloud design. 1. Redundancy
2. High availability
3. Disaster recovery
4. Recovery objectiv RPO RTO Business Principles of Cloud Environments 28% Given a scenario, use appropriate cloud exams. 1. Current and future requirements
2. Baseline
3. Feasibility study
4. Gap analysis Business Technical 5. Reporting Compute Network Storage 6. Benchmarks
7. Documentation and diagrams
8. Key stakeholders
9. Point of contact Summarize the financial aspects of engaging a cloud provider. 1. Capital expenditures
2. Operating expenditures
3. Variable vs. fixed cost
4. Licensing models BYOL Subscription 5. Contracts
6. Billing
7. Request for information
8. Human capital Training Professional development Identify the important business aspects of vendor relations in cloud adoptions.
1. Professional services Time to market Skill availability Support Managed services
2. Statement of work (SOW)
3. Service level agreement (SLA)
4. Training
5. Evaluations Pilot Proof of value Proof of concept Success criteria
6. Open-source vs. proprietary Identify the benefits or solutions of utilizing cloud services.
1. Identity access management Single sign-on Multifactor authentication Federation
2. Cloud-native applications Microservices Containerization
3. Data analytics Machine learning Artificial intelligence Big Data
4. Digital marketing Email campaigns Social media 5. Autonomous environments
6. IoT
7. Blockchain
8. Subscription services
9. Collaboration
10. VDI
11. Self-service Compare and contrast cloud migration approaches. 1. Rip and replace
2. Lift and shift
3. Hybrid
4. Phased Management and Technical Operations 26% Explain aspects of operating within the cloud.
1. Data management Replication Locality Backup
2. Availability Zones Geo-redundancy
3. Disposable resources
4. Monitoring and visibility Alerts Logging
5. Optimization Auto-scaling Right-sizing Explain DevOps in cloud environments.
1. Provisioning Infrastructure as code Templates 2. Continuous integration/ continuous delivery
3. Testing in QA environments Sandboxing Load testing Regression testing
4. Configuration management Orchestration Automation Upgrades and patching
5. API integration Given a scenario, review and report on the financial expenditures related to cloud resources.
1. Storage
2. Network
3. Compute
4. Chargebacks Resource tagging
5. Maintenance
6. Instances Reserved Spot
7. Licensing type
8. Licensing quantity Governance, Risk, Compliance, and Security for the Cloud 22% Recognize risk management concepts related to cloud services.
1. Risk test Asset inventory Classification Ownership
2. Risk response Mitigation Acceptance Avoidance Transfer
3. Documentation Findings Risk register
4. Vendor lock-in
5. Data portability Explain policies or procedures.
1. Standard operating procedures
2. Change management
3. Resource management
4. Security policies Incident response
5. Access and control policies
6. Department specific policies
7. Communication policies Identify the importance and impacts of compliance in the cloud.
1. Data sovereignty
2. Regulatory concerns
3. Industry-based requirements
4. International standards
5. Certifications Explain security concerns, measures, or concepts of cloud operations.
1. Threat
2. Vulnerability
3. Security exams Penetration testing Vulnerability scanning Application scanning
4. Data security Categories
- Public
- Private
- Sensitive Confidentiality
- Encryption
- Sanitization Integrity
- Validation Availability
- Backup
- Recovery Breach
5. Application and Infrastructure security Audit Access Authorization Hardening



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug