Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam duration : 60 minutes (Candidates taking the test in a language that is not their native or working language may be awarded 25% extra time, i.e. 75 minutes in total)
Number of marks : 40 marks (There are 40 questions, each worth 1 mark. There is no negative marking.)
Provisional Pass mark : 26 marks (You will need to get 26 questions correct (65%) to pass the exam.)

ITIL 4 Foundation candidates will have an understanding of the following:
A holistic approach to the facilitation of co-creation of value with customers and other stakeholders in the form of products and services
The guiding principles of ITIL 4
The four dimensions of Service Management
Key concepts from Lean, Agile, DevOps, and why these are important to deliver business value
How ITIL practices described in ITIL 4 will maintain the value and importance provided by the current ITIL processes, whilst at the same time expand to be integrated to different areas of service management and IT, from demand to value.

The ITIL 4 Foundation qualification is intended to introduce candidates to the management of modern IT-enabled services, to provide them with an understanding of the common language and key concepts, and to show them how they can Excellerate their work and the work of their organization with ITIL 4 guidance. Furthermore, the qualification will provide the candidate with an understanding of the ITIL 4 service management framework and how it has evolved to adopt modern technologies and ways of working.
The ITIL 4 Foundation examination is intended to assess whether the candidate can demonstrate sufficient recall and understanding of the ITIL 4 service management framework, as described in the syllabus below, to be awarded the ITIL 4 Foundation qualification. The ITIL 4 Foundation qualification is a prerequisite for the ITIL 4 higher level qualifications, which assess the candidates ability to apply their understanding of the relevant parts of the ITIL framework in context.

1.1 Recall the definition of
a) Service
b) Utility
c) Warranty
d) Customer
e) User
f) Service management
g) Sponsor

1.2 Describe the key concepts of creating value with services:
a) Cost
b) Value
c) Organization
d) Outcome
e) Output
f) Risk
g) Utility
h) Warranty

1.3 Describe the key concepts of service relationships:
a) Service offering
b) Service relationship management
c) Service provision
d) Service consumption

2.1 Describe the nature, use and interaction of the guiding principles

2.2 Explain the use of the guiding principles (4.3):
a) Focus on value (4.3.1 – 4.3.1.4)
b) Start where you are (4.3.2 – 4.3.2.3)
c) Progress iteratively with feedback (4.3.3 – 4.3.3.3)
d) Collaborate and promote visibility (4.3.4 – 4.3.4.4)
e) Think and work holistically (4.3.5 – 4.3.5.1)
f) Keep it simple and practical (4.3.6 – 4.3.6.3)
g) Optimize and automate (4.3.7 – 4.3.7.3)

3.1 Describe the four dimensions of service management (3):
a) Organizations and people (3.1)
b) Information and technology (3.2)
c) Partners and suppliers (3.3)
d) Value streams and processes (3.4-3.4.2)

4.1 Describe the ITIL service value system (4.1)

5.1 Describe the interconnected nature of the service value chain and how this supports value streams (4.5)

5.2 Describe the purpose of each value chain activity:
a) Plan
b) Excellerate
c) Engage
d) Design & transition
e) Obtain/build
f) Deliver & support

6.1 Recall the purpose of the following ITIL practices:
a) Information security management (5.1.3)
b) Relationship management (5.1.9)
c) provider management (5.1.13)
d) IT asset management (5.2.6)
e) Monitoring and event management (5.2.7)
f) Release management (5.2.9)
g) Service configuration management (5.2.11)
h) Deployment management (5.3.1)
i) Continual improvement (5.1.2)
j) Change enablement (5.2.4)
k) Incident management (5.2.5)
l) Problem management (5.2.8)
m) Service request management (5.2.16)
n) Service desk (5.2.14)
o) Service level management (5.2.15)

6.2 Recall definitions of the following ITIL terms:
a) IT asset
b) Event
c) Configuration item
d) Change
e) Incident
f) Problem
g) Known error

7.1 Explain the following ITIL practices in detail, excluding how they fit within the service value chain:
a) Continual improvement (5.1.2) including:
- The continual improvement model (4.6, fig 4.3)
b) Change enablement (5.2.4)
c) Incident management (5.2.5)
d) Problem management (5.2.8)
e) Service request management (5.2.16)
f) Service desk (5.2.14)
g) Service level management (5.2.15 – 5.2.15.1)



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug