Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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NCLEX-PN test Format | NCLEX-PN Course Contents | NCLEX-PN Course Outline | NCLEX-PN test Syllabus | NCLEX-PN test Objectives


The test plan is reviewed and approved by the NCLEX®

test Committee (NEC) every three years.

Multiple resources are used, including the latest practice analysis of licensed practical/vocational nurses
(LPN/VNs), and expert opinions of the NEC, NCSBN staff and nursing regulatory bodies (NRBs) to ensure that
the test plan is consistent with nurse practice acts. Following the endorsement of proposed revisions by
the NEC, the test plan document is presented for approval to the Delegate Assembly, which is the decisionmaking body of NCSBN.
The test plan serves a variety of purposes. It is used to guide candidates preparing for the examination, to
direct item writers in the development of items, and to facilitate the classification of examination items. This
document offers a comprehensive listing of content for each client needs category and subcategory outlined
in the test plan. trial items are provided at the end of each category, which are specific to the client needs
category in that section. There is an item writing guide along with trial case scenarios, which provide
nurse educators with hands-on experience in writing NCLEX-style test items.



Entry into the practice of nursing is regulated by the licensing authorities within each of the NCSBN nursing
regulatory bodies (state, commonwealth and territorial boards of nursing). To ensure public protection, each
jurisdiction requires candidates for licensure to meet set requirements that include passing an examination
that measures the competencies needed to perform safely and effectively as a licensed practical/vocational
nurse (LPN/VN). NCSBN develops a licensure examination, the National Council Licensure test for
Practical Nurses (NCLEX-PN®), which is used by U.S. members to assist in making licensure decisions.

Several steps occur in the development of the NCLEX-PN Test Plan. The first step is conducting a practice
analysis that is used to collect data on the current practice of entry-level LPN/VNs (Report of Findings from
the 2018 LPN/VN Practice Analysis: Linking the NCLEX-PN® test to Practice, NCSBN, 2019). Twelve
thousand newly licensed practical/vocational nurses are asked about the frequency and priority of performing nursing care activities. Nursing care activities are then analyzed in relation to the frequency of performance, impact on maintaining client safety and client care settings where the activities are performed. This
analysis guides the development of a framework for entry-level nursing practice that incorporates specific
client needs, as well as processes that are fundamental to the practice of nursing. The next step is the
development of the NCLEX-PN Test Plan, which guides the selection of content and behaviors to be tested.
Variations in jurisdiction laws and regulations are considered in the development of the test plan.
The NCLEX-PN Test Plan provides a concise summary of the content and scope of the licensure examination.
It serves as a guide for examination development as well as candidate preparation. The NCLEX® assesses the knowledge, skills and abilities that are essential for the entry-level LPN/VN to use in order to meet the needs
of clients requiring the promotion, maintenance and restoration of health. The following sections describe
beliefs about people and nursing that are integral to the examination, cognitive abilities that will be tested in
the examination and specific components of the NCLEX-PN Test Plan.



Client Needs

Percentage of Items from Each

Category/Subcategory

Safe and Effective Care Environment

„ Coordinated Care 18–24%

„ Safety and Infection Control 10–16%

Health Promotion and Maintenance 6–12%

Psychosocial Integrity 9–15%

Physiological Integrity

„ Basic Care and Comfort 7–13%

„ Pharmacological Therapies 10–16%

„ Reduction of Risk Potential 9–15%

„ Physiological Adaptation 7–13%



The activity statements used in the 2018 LPN/VN Practice Analysis: Linking the NCLEX-PN®
test to
Practice (NCSBN, 2019) preface each of the eight content categories and are identified throughout the test
plan by an asterisk (*). NCSBN performs an analysis of those activities used frequently and identified as
important by entry-level nurses to ensure client safety. This is called a practice analysis; it provides data to
support the NCLEX as a reliable, valid measure of competent, entry-level LPN/VN practice. The practice analysis is conducted every three years.
In addition to the practice analysis, NCSBN conducts a knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA) survey. The primary purpose of this study is to identify the knowledge needed by newly licensed practical/vocational nurses
in order to provide safe and effective care. Findings from both the 2018 LPN/VN Practice Analysis: Linking
the NCLEX-PN®
test to Practice (NCSBN, 2019) and the 2018 LPN/VN Nursing Knowledge Survey
(NCSBN, 2019) can be found at www.ncsbn.org/1235.htm. Both documents are used in the development of
the NCLEX-PN Test Plan as well as to inform item development.
All task statements in the 2020 NCLEX-PN®
Test Plan require the nurse to apply the fundamental principles
of clinical decision making and critical thinking to nursing practice. The test plan also makes the assumption
that the nurse integrates concepts from the following bodies of knowledge:

„ Social Sciences (psychology and sociology); and

„ Biological Sciences (anatomy, physiology, biology and microbiology) Collaboration with Interdisciplinary Team

„ Identify roles/responsibilities of health care team members

„ Identify need for nursing or interdisciplinary client care conference

„ Contribute to the development of and/or update the client plan of care

„ Contribute to planning interdisciplinary client care conferences

„ Participate as a member of an interdisciplinary team Concepts of Management and Supervision

„ Recognize and report staff conflict

„ Verify abilities of staff members to perform assigned tasks (e.g., job description, scope of practice, training, experience)

„ Provide input for performance evaluation of other staff

„ Participate in staff education (e.g., inservices, continued competency)

„ Use data from various credible sources in making clinical decisions

„ Serve as resource person to other staff

„ Monitor activities of assistive personnel

Confidentiality/Information Security

„ Identify staff actions that impact client confidentiality and intervene as needed (e.g., access to medical records, discussions at nurses station, change-of-shift reports)

„ Recognize staff member and client understanding of confidentiality requirements

„ Apply knowledge of facility regulations when accessing client records

„ Maintain client confidentiality*

„ Provide for privacy needs Continuity of Care

„ Follow up with client after discharge*

„ Participate in client discharge or transfer*

„ Provide follow-up for unresolved client care issues

„ Provide and receive report*

„ Record client information (e.g., medical record, referral/transfer form)

„ Use agency guidelines to guide client care (e.g., clinical pathways, care maps, care plans)

Establishing Priorities

„ Organize and prioritize care based on client needs*

„ Participate in planning client care based upon client needs (e.g., diagnosis, abilities, prescribed treatment)

„ Use effective time management skills

Ethical Practice

„ Identify ethical issues affecting staff or client

„ Inform client of ethical issues affecting client care

„ Intervene to promote ethical practice

„ Practice in a manner consistent with code of ethics for nurses*

„ Review client and staff member knowledge of ethical issues affecting client care Informed Consent

„ Identify appropriate person to provide informed consent for client (e.g., client, parent, legal guardian)

„ Participate in client consent process*

„ Describe informed consent requirements (e.g., purpose for procedure, risks of procedure)

„ Recognize that informed consent was obtained (e.g., completed consent form, client understanding of procedure)

Information Technology

„ Use information technology in client care*

„ Access data for client or staff through online databases and journals

„ Enter computer documentation accurately, completely and in a timely manner

Legal Responsibilities

„ Identify legal issues affecting staff and client (e.g., refusing treatment)

„ Verify and process health care provider orders*

„ Recognize self-limitations of task/assignments and seek assistance when needed*

„ Respond to the unsafe practice of a health care provider (e.g., intervene, report)*

„ Follow regulation/policy for reporting specific issues (e.g., abuse, neglect, gunshot wound,
communicable disease)*

„ Document client care

„ Provide care within the legal scope of practice*

Performance Improvement (Quality Improvement)

„ Identify impact of performance improvement/quality improvement activities on client care
outcomes

„ Participate in quality improvement (QI) activity (e.g., collecting data, serving on QI committee)*

„ Document performance improvement/quality improvement activities

„ Report identified performance improvement/quality improvement concerns to appropriate

personnel (e.g., nurse manager, risk manager)

„ Apply evidence-based practice when providing care*



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NCLEX Licensure Study Guide

 

Study guide

This bestselling textbook provides an engaging and user-friendly introduction to the study of language.

Assuming no prior knowledge of the subject, Yule presents information in bite-sized sections, clearly explaining the major concepts in linguistics – from how children learn language to why men and women speak differently, through all the key elements of language. This fifth edition has been revised and updated with new figures and tables, additional topics, and numerous new examples using languages from across the world.To increase student engagement and to foster problem-solving and critical thinking skills, the book includes thirty new tasks. An expanded and revised online study guide provides students with further resources, including answers and tutorials for all tasks, while encouraging lively and proactive learning. This is the most fundamental and easy-to-use introduction to the study of language.


Study Guides

 

About the BookBreaking Through

Like the Joad family in the Steinbeck classic, Grapes of Wrath, the Jimenez’s came to California to escape poverty and find a better life. In a short story titled "Crossing la Frontera" (the border), told from a child's point of view, Jimenez describes his family's flight from their home in a small village north of Guadalajara across the border into the United States:

“On both sides of the fence were armed guards in green uniforms. Papa called them la migra and explained that they had to cross the fence to the other side, without being seen by these men. If they succeeded, they would enter los Estados Unidos....We continued walking along the wire wall, until Papa spotted a small hole underneath the fence. Papa got on his knees and, with his hands, made the opening larger. They all crawled through it like snakes."

“A few minutes later, they were picked up by a woman whom Papa had contacted in Mexicali. She had promised to pick us up in her car and drive us, for a fee, to a place where they would find work. As they traveled north through the night, I fell asleep for a long time on Mama's lap. I woke up at dawn and heard the woman say, we're entering the San Joaquin Valley. Here you'll find plenty of work. ‘This is the beginning of a new life,’ Mama said, taking a deep breath. ‘A good life,’ Papa answered.

As it turned out, many years would pass before anyone in the Jiménez family experienced that good life. Jiménez’s father, Francisco, his mother Joaquina, and his older brother Roberto, found work picking crops in the fields. So began the cycle of moving from camp to camp, following the harvest.

The family, which eventually grew to nine children, lived in one-room shacks and tents. In the summer, they picked strawberries in Santa Maria. Then they traveled to Fresno to pick grapes in early September and on to Corcoran and Bakersfield to pick cotton in the winter. In February, they moved back to Santa Maria to thin lettuce and top carrots.

Working from sunup to sundown, the entire family earned just $15 a day. Jiménez called this nomadic existence "the circuit" in a short story by that title that has been reproduced many times in textbooks and anthologies of American literature.

"It's a symbolic circuit," he says. "If you're a migrant worker, you're constantly living in poverty. It's very difficult to get out of it."

Yet Jiménez soon found relief from the hard life in the fields and a way to escape the circuit: school. "I came to realize that learning and knowledge were the only stable things in my life. Whatever I learned in school, that knowledge would stay with me no matter how many times they moved."

Because Jiménez could not start school until after the mid-November harvest and because he knew so little English, he struggled to keep up with his classmates. One teacher even labeled him mentally retarded.

"I would start school and find myself behind, especially in English," he remembers. "School for the first nine years was very sporadic."

Still, Jiménez was luckier than his brother Roberto, who was old enough to pick cotton and therefore could not start school until February. In "The Circuit," Jiménez describes the pain of leaving his brother behind on his first day back at school:

"I woke up early that morning and lay in bed, looking at the stars and savoring the thought of not going to work and starting sixth grade for the first time that year. Since I could not sleep, I decided to get up and join Papa and Roberto at breakfast. I sat at the table across from Roberto, but I kept my head down. I did not want to look up and face him. I knew he was sad. He was not going to school today. He was not going tomorrow, or next week, or next month."

Unlike many of his classmates, Jiménez looked forward to the days he spent in school. "I had many embarrassing moments; but in spite of those, I enjoyed the environment," he says. "School was a lot nicer than home. Many times, they lived in tents with dirt floors, no electricity or plumbing. In school they had electricity, plumbing, lighting. They even had toys."Although the physical environment was pleasant, interactions with classmates often were not. "Kids would call me spic, or greaser, tamale wrapper. They made fun of my thick accent and whenever I made grammatical mistakes. That really hurt. I withdrew and became quiet," Jiménez says.

Fortunately, Jiménez sometimes encountered a friendly teacher who recognized his desire to learn. His sixth-grade teacher, Mr. Lema, helped him with his English during lunch. Discovering that Jiménez enjoyed music, the universal language, Lema offered to teach him to play the trumpet.

But Jiménez never got his first lesson. When he went home to tell his mother and father the good news about his music lessons, he found the family's possessions neatly packed into cardboard boxes. They were moving again.

To compensate for his sporadic education, Jiménez began teaching himself. He would jot down words he was trying to memorize on a small note pad and carry it with him into the fields so he could study during his breaks.

Whenever his family visited the local public dump to collect discarded clothes, wood for a floor, and other necessities, Jiménez would pick up books. Once he found a single volume of an encyclopedia. Not realizing it was part of a 20-volume set, he leafed through its pages, figuring that if he could learn to read the whole thing, he'd know just about everything there was to know.

Wherever he was, Jiménez always knew to run and hide from la migra (Immigration and Naturalization Service agents), especially when they made their sweeps through the fields and camps.

Jiménez and his family lived in fear of being deported. His father had a visa, but the others did not; visas were too expensive. Jiménez remembers the INS officers interrogating people and sometimes beating them. When someone asked where he was born, he lied.When he was in junior high school, INS agents entered Jiménez's classroom and arrested him as an illegal immigrant. The family was deported to Mexico but returned after several weeks with visas obtained with the help of a Japanese sharecropper who sponsored them.Jiménez's life changed forever when he was about to enter high school. Because his father suffered from permanent back pain--probably from too many hours bent over the crops--he could no longer work in the fields. It was up to Roberto to support the family.

Roberto found a job as a janitor at a school in Santa Maria; Jiménez also worked for a janitorial company. Now the family did not have to follow the harvest. Now Jiménez could start school with the rest of the class and keep up with his studies."The work was indoors; and after I was done cleaning, I could study in an office," he says. "This was my chance."

With his newfound stability, Jiménez thrived. He became student-body president of his high school and earned a 3.7 GPA. A guidance counselor, disturbed that a gifted student was not going to college because the family could not afford to send him, managed to arrange for Jiménez to obtain scholarships and student loans so that he could enroll at Santa Clara University.

 

 

Before studying the BookBreaking Through

• Sometimes life takes an unexpected turn. With a partner, think about a dream you have for the future. Then, discuss this scenario: Imagine that your family has to relocate to another country. How would you cope with losing something – a person, a way of life, an experience? Make notes about how you would react to such a difficult situation. What plans would you make to fulfill your dreams? Discuss your revised vision of the future with your partner. As you read Breaking Through, pay attention to how Francisco deals with his own obstacles of moving to the United States and how he achieved his dreams.

Make a ConnectionBreaking Through

Have students remember a time when they have had to say goodbye to someone. What positive or negative emotions did they experience?

Have students recall a time when they conquered a fear or mastered a task that was difficult for them. Discuss how they felt when they succeeded.

Have students complete this sentence: I once had to start over _____________. They may recall a project they were building or a larger challenge in life. Discuss the hardships and rewards of starting over.

Have students remember a time when they made a new friend. Discuss how valuable a friend can be in a difficult situation.

Have students think of a time when they traveled to a new place. Were they excited or anxious? Discuss the emotions associated with experiencing an unfamiliar location or landscape.

As they read, have students keep notes about the external and internal conflicts that Francisco experiences and how he deals with each one.

 

Reflection and Discussion QuestionsBreaking Through

1. What did you learn about the experience of Mexican-American migrant farmworkers of the 1940s? What did you learn about the European-American landowners?

2. How different would this book be if it were about migrant farm workers of Mexican descent today?

3. How would these stories be different if they were told from the eyes of the father in the story? From one of Francisco’s teachers? From one of the landowners?

4. What stereotypes are there about Mexican-Americans? Mexico? Migrant farm workers?

5. What are some examples of racial prejudice in this story?

6. What are some examples of power in this story? How is it used?

7. There is great controversy in many communities about "English - only" education. What are the arguments about it? Who is making the arguments? Who has power in these arguments and how are they using this power? What do you think about the "English - only" debate?

8. What do you know of migrant farm workers in your community? Of Mexican-Americans? How could you find out more? What do the Mexican-Americans in your community express as their needs (if they are heard in your community)?

9. This book is for adults and children. If you were giving this book as a gift to a child what would you want the child to know about the book and how young a child would you deliver this book to?

10. In the section about the author, Jimenez talks about being given The Grapes of Wrath as a teenager and realizing it was the first book he had read to which he could relate. What are the stories of your cultural heritage and when did you read them? What stories are the children in your community being asked to read and does it relate to their cultural heritage? What values does this book share in its telling? How would you and folks from your congregation greet migrant farm workers such as Francisco’s family if they showed up in church? How is this book helpful in unlearning racism?

11. What questions do you still have that you would like the group to discuss?

12. What do you still wish to know more about and will explore on your own?

13. What did you like most and least about the book?

14. What did you feel and learn about yourself?

 

Things to DiscussBreaking Through

Overall Reaction1. How did the story impact you and what did you learn from the book?

2. What do you think contributed to the author Breaking Through successfully?

Comparing the Immigrant Experience1. If you are an immigrant to this country how was Professor Jiménez’s life story similar or different than your own story?

2. If you were born in this country, how has your life or your family’s been similar to or different from the Jiménez family?

3. Given that the story was written about events nearly 45 years ago, how do you think things are similar or different for immigrants in 2003?

4. Given the continuous controversies surrounding immigration laws in the state and country, are there any changes you think need to be made?

The Role of Their Community in Educating Their Children1. What teachers made an impact in your life and why?

2. Should the community play a role in supporting the education of ALL students?

3. What suggestions do you have for assisting and improving bilingual education?

Relating One's Own Personal Story1. What times have there been in your life when you have had a Breaking Through experience?

2. What helped you succeed?

Closing1. As a result of the Silicon Valley Reads-One Book One Community project, what impact do you think studying and discussing the book will make on you or the community as a whole?

2. Do you have any suggestions for future book selections for the community?

 

SymbolismBreaking Through

Authors often use symbols – people, places, or things that have their own meaning and also stand for something else to deepen a story’s message. Francisco Jiménez quotes Thomas Mann, Dr. Faustus in the beginning of the book – What is the symbolism Jiménez is trying to get across?

“There is at bottom only one problem in the world…How does one break through?How does one get into the open?How does one burst the cocoon and become a butterfly?”

 

ThemesBreaking Through

Students will see the following themes, or main ideas, developed in detail in Breaking Through.

• Breaking down barriers• Striving for a better way of life• Helping to support your family• Having a strong work ethic• The value of education• Being respectful to others• Encountering racism• Being proud of your heritage• Making friends and becoming a leader at school• Having your parents rely on you for many things• Trying to balance the traditions of your family with a new set of values and a different way of life• Working hard to fulfill your dreams• Writing a story about your life


A MOSAIC Study Guide

Editor’s Note: This story originally appeared on ByDanJohnson.com.

FAA proposed regulation has powerfully captured the attention of many pilots. Pilots have tons of questions. They have some answers. Everyone has a lot to read.

Overall, FAA’s Modernization of Special Airworthiness Certification (MOSAIC) regulation proposal has been warmly received as it opens the door to more capable aircraft that a sport pilot can fly. That’s good, but the document has problems, too. Following are four examples.

MOSAIC’s language invigorated many readers when the Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM) expressed support for a sport pilot certificate holder to fly at night, with proper training and a logbook endorsement. Yet the proposal refers to other FAA regulations requiring BasicMed or an AvMed. If you must have a medical, you are not exercising the central privilege of a sport pilot certificate. Why suggest that a sport pilot can do things that are blocked by other regulations? This conflict should be resolved.

Another opportunity gap involves aerial work. We’re pleased the Light Aircraft Manufacturers Association (LAMA’s) request was included, but it requires a commercial certificate to fly for compensation, and this requirement eliminates powered parachutes and weight shift trikes, for which no commercial certificate is available. This is discriminatory and should be fixed.

Maintenance experts have lots of questions; see the video at bottom.

ASTM standards writers raised questions about the value of noise regulations included for no present gain, “requiring solutions before the problem exists.” This appears to have political motivations.

You may find other aspects of MOSAIC that urge you to comment. If so, you may find the following helpful.

MOSAIC Study Guide

I can’t imagine anyone genuinely enjoys studying MOSAIC. The NPRM encompasses many pages in dense language; it’s tedious to review.

It just got a lot easier, thanks to Roy Beisswenger. [Beisswenger is founder and proprietor of Easy Flight]

Beginning in 2014—well before MOSAIC existed—Beisswenger and I spent years advocating on behalf of the LSA industry and the pilots that fly those light aircraft to the FAA. Beisswenger was the lead author on several white papers LAMA submitted to support each of its requests. They went over so well with the FAA that they are mentioned in the footnotes.

As you will see in the attached PDF study guide, Beisswenger has done a monster amount of work in reformatting the documents so that you can walk through it and find what you want much easier.

Beisswenger also addressed specific comments I had, whereupon studying one section, the FAA refers to another, and then to another. Before long, you forget where you started and struggle to retrace your steps. You also need internet access to study the FARs published outside the NPRM. The continuous back-and-forth makes studying the document slow, yet the clock is ticking on public comments. At this writing they have just over 60 days left.

Reviewing the NPRM is far easier with this PDF study guide because of the bookmarks, links, and backlinks, plus already-highlighted text which shows what current FARs could be changed plus some lightly-colored text that illustrates where the FAA will insert new language.

MOSAIC will still take a significant effort to review carefully, but Beisswenger made the task much easier and faster.

The Magic of Bookmarks

If you open the study guide with Adobe Acrobat on almost any device or computer—or if you use Preview on Apple laptops/desktops—you will gain access to the bookmarks (look for a small icon in the upper right of a tablet or a smart phone; in Preview, show the Table of Contents. On both, use the triangles to drop down further and further). Bookmarks are your navigation friend, helping you jump to places of interest or study.

Beisswenger even embedded back buttons on some pages when reviewing the FARs. This helps readers not get lost in their investigations.

Of course, within Acrobat (or Preview), you can search for specific text.

I observe for you that such ease of review was not possible when the SP/LSA regulation was released in 2004 (three years before the iPhone was introduced).

When reviewing MOSAIC I recommend you follow aspects of particular interest to you rather than try to absorb the whole thing.

However deep you go, Beisswenger made it much easier. 

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    John Zimmerman, president of Sporty’s, thought their conversation in this edition of the “Pilot’s Discretion” podcast conveyed a lot of good information (audio—42 minutes). John was an excellent interviewer.


     




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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug