Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : PEGACRSA80V1
Exam Name : Certified Robotics System Architect (CRSA) 80V1
Vendor Name : Pegasystems
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PEGACRSA80V1 test Format | PEGACRSA80V1 Course Contents | PEGACRSA80V1 Course Outline | PEGACRSA80V1 test Syllabus | PEGACRSA80V1 test Objectives


- Create a standard Windows form using .NET window controls
- Integrate and interrogate a Windows application and a Web application within the solution
- Create a unified solution using project-to-project references
- Use the Interaction Framework within the unified solution to seamlessly maintain and transfer data and activities across the solution
- Create a project and solution hierarchy structure to easily maintain and scale the unified solution
- Using a defined process, create automations to streamline the process by integrating the multi-project solution through programming logic
- Add and edit match rules on interrogated objects to create an understanding of the matching process for both Window and Web applications Generate build files and deployment packages of the unified solution
- Use the standard Visual Studio diagnostic and debugging tools to test the unified solution

Course Outline
- Course Introduction
- Before you begin
- Completing the exercises
- Introduction to Pega Robotic Automation
- RDA and RPA architecture
- Pega Robot Studio IDE basics
- Common Tool windows
- How to organize the workspace
- Assessment: Introduction to Pega Robotic Automation
- Project Management: Project Documentation
- Solution Design Document
- Solution Architecture Document
- Assessment: Project documentation
- Project Management: Solutions and Projects
- Robotic solutions and projects
- How to create a solution and project
- Assessment: Solutions and projects
- Project Management: Practice
- Exercise: Creating solutions and projects
- System Integration: Adapters
- Introduction to adapters
- Overview of adapters
- Windows adapters
- Web adapters
- Universal Web adapter
- Modifying the properties of an object
- How to add and configure a web adapter
- Assessment: Adapters
- System Integration: Practice
- Exercise: Adding and configuring adapters
- Interrogation: Basic Interrogation
- Introduction to basic interrogation
- Overview of interrogation
- Web application interrogation
- Global web pages
- Other interrogation techniques
- How to interrogate a web application
- Assessment: Basic interrogation
- Interrogation: Match Rules
- Introduction to match rules
- Overview of match rules
- Web-based match rules
- Universal Web adapter match rules
- Common match rule issues
- Adapter Match Rules tab
- Modifying match rules
- Assessment: Match rules
- Interrogation: Practice
- Exercise: Interrogating Windows and web applications
- Automations: Basic Robotic Automations
- Introduction to basic robotic automations
- Automation development
- Object Explorer and automations
- Object properties, events, and methods
- Creating an automation
- MessageDialog
- Types of automation links
- Managing automation workflow
- Automations as procedures
- Label/Jump To component
- Creating a procedure automation
- Assessment: Basic robotic automation
- Automations: Practice 1
- Exercise: Creating an automation
- Debugging and Diagnostics: Debugging
- Introduction to debugging
- Overview of debugging
- How to use breakpoints
- Debugging automation data values
- How to check data values
- Assessment: Debugging
- Debugging and Diagnostics: Diagnostics
- Introduction to diagnostics
- Diagnostics settings
- Modifying diagnostic settings
- Diagnostic logging
- Add a diagnostic log component to an automation
- Dissecting a log file
- Pega Robotic Automation Playback
- Log file cleaner
- Assessment: Diagnostics
- Debugging and Diagnostics: Practice
- Exercise: Using breakpoints and diagnostic logs
- Automations: UseKeys Property
- Introduction to working with the UseKeys property
- The UseKeys property
- Application of keys
- Setting the UseKeys property
- Automations: Automation Techniques
- Introduction to automation techniques
- Raising events
- Automation data elements
- Accessing automation data elements
- Creating a Windows Form
- Assessment: Automation techniques
- Automations: Practice 2
- Exercise: Creating Windows form and procedure automations
- Automations: Toolbox Components
- Introduction to toolbox components
- Automation variables
- Expressions and comparisons
- String, DateTime, and File utilities
- Automation looping
- Using wait logic
- Excel File Connector
- Assessment: Toolbox components
- Automations: Out-of-the-Box Configurations
- Introduction to out-of-the-box configurations
- Assisted Sign-on
- Configuring Assisted Sign-on
- Start My Day
- Configuring Start My Day
- Message Manifest
- Implementing Message Manifest
- Configuring Message Manifest
- Assessment: Out-of-the-box configurations
- Automations: Practice 3
- Exercise: Setting UseKeys and implementing ASO
- Interaction Framework: Components
- Introduction to Interaction Framework components
- Components of Interaction Framework
- The interaction.xml
- Modifying the interaction.xml
- Interaction Manager component
- Adding the Interaction Manager component
- Project-to-project references
- Creating a project-to-project reference
- Assessment: Interaction Framework components
- Interaction Framework: Practice 1
- Exercise: Adding framework components to a solution
- Interaction Framework: Implementing Interaction Framework
- Introduction to implementing Interaction Framework
- Framework context values
- Interactions and activities
- The Activity component
- Adding an Activity component
- Interaction versus activity activation
- Updated Framework context values
- Assessment: Implementing Interaction Framework
- Interaction Framework: Practice 2
- Exercise: Implementing interactions and activities
- Deployment: Automation Package Deployment
- Introduction to automation package deployment
- Robotic solution deployment
- Robotic configuration files
- Creating a project configuration file
- Project properties
- Deploying a solution
- Deploying to Robot Manager
- Assessment: Deployment
- Deployment: Practice
- Exercise: Deploying a solution using configuration files



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug