Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : SANS-SEC504
Exam Name : Hacker Tools, Techniques, Exploits and Incident Handling
Vendor Name : SANS
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SANS-SEC504 test Format | SANS-SEC504 Course Contents | SANS-SEC504 Course Outline | SANS-SEC504 test Syllabus | SANS-SEC504 test Objectives


- How to best prepare for an eventual breach
- The step-by-step approach used by many computer attackers
- Proactive and reactive defenses for each stage of a computer attack
- How to identify active attacks and compromises
- The latest computer attack vectors and how you can stop them
- How to properly contain attacks
- How to ensure that attackers do not return
- How to recover from computer attacks and restore systems for business
- How to understand and use hacking tools and techniques
- Strategies and tools for detecting each type of attack
- Attacks and defenses for Windows, UNIX, switches, routers, and other systems
- Application-level vulnerabilities, attacks, and defenses
- How to develop an incident handling process and prepare a team for battle
- Legal issues in incident handling

Topics
- Preparation
- Building an incident response kit
- Identifying your core incident response team
- Instrumentation of the site and system
- Identification
- Signs of an incident
- First steps
- Chain of custody
- Detecting and reacting to insider threats
- Containment
- Documentation strategies: video and audio
- Containment and quarantine
- Pull the network cable, switch and site
- Identifying and isolating the trust model
- Eradication
- Evaluating whether a backup is compromised
- Total rebuild of the Operating System
- Moving to a new architecture
- Recovery
- Who makes the determination to return to production=>
- Monitoring to system
- Expect an increase in attacks
- Special Actions for Responding to Different Types of Incidents
- Espionage
- Inappropriate use
- Incident Record-keeping
- Pre-built forms
- Legal acceptability
- Incident Follow-up
- Lessons learned meeting
- Changes in process for the future
- Reconnaissance
- What does your network reveal=>
- Are you leaking too much information=>
- Using forward and reverse Whois lookups, ARIN, RIPE, and APNIC
- Domain Name System harvesting
- Data gathering from job postings, websites, and government databases
- Recon-ing
- Pushpin
- Identifying publicly compromised accounts
- Maltego
- FOCA for metadata analysis
- Aggregate OSINT data collection with SpiderFoot
- Scanning
- Locating and attacking personal and enterprise Wi-Fi
- Identifying and exploiting proprietary wireless systems
- Rubber Duckie attacks to steal Wi-Fi profiles
- War dialing with War-VOX for renegade modems and unsecure phones
- Port scanning: Traditional, stealth, and blind scanning
- Active and passive operating system fingerprinting
- Determining firewall filtering rules
- Vulnerability scanning using Nessus and other tools
- Distributing scanning using cloud agents for blacklist evasion
- Intrusion Detection System (IDS) Evasion
- Foiling IDS at the network level
- Foiling IDS at the application level: Exploiting the rich syntax of computer languages
- Web Attack IDS evasion tactics
- Bypassing IDS/IPS with TCP obfuscation techniques
- Enumerating Windows Active Directory Targets
- Windows Active Directory domain enumeration with BloodHound, SharpView
- Windows Command and Control with PowerShell Empire
- Operating system bridging from Linux to Windows targets
- Defending against SMB attacks with sophisticated Windows networking features
- Physical-layer Attacks
- Clandestine exploitation of exposed USB ports
- Simple network impersonation for credential recovery
- Hijacking password libraries with cold boot recovery tool
- Gathering and Parsing Packets
- Active sniffing: ARP cache poisoning and DNS injection
- Bettercap
- Responder
- LLMNR poisoning
- WPAD attacks
- DNS cache poisoning: Redirecting traffic on the Internet
- Using and abusing Netcat, including backdoors and insidious relays
- IP address spoofing variations
- Encryption dodging and downgrade attacks
- Operating System and Application-level Attacks
- Buffer overflows in-depth
- The Metasploit exploitation framework
- AV and application whitelisting bypass techniques
- Netcat: The Attacker's Best Friend
- Transferring files, creating backdoors, and shoveling shell
- Netcat relays to obscure the source of an attack
- Replay attacks
- Endpoint Security Bypass
- How attackers use creative office document macro attacks
- Detection bypass with Veil, Magic Unicorn
- Putting PowerShell to work as an attack tool
- AV evasion with Ghostwriting
- Attack tool transfiguration with native binaries
- Password Cracking
- Password cracking with John the Ripper
- Hashcat mask attacks
- Modern Windows Pass-the-Hash attacks
- Rainbow Tables
- Password guessing and spraying attacks
- Web Application Attacks
- Account harvesting
- SQL Injection: Manipulating back-end databases
- Session cloning: Grabbing other users' web sessions
- Cross-site scripting
- Denial-of-Service Attacks
- Distributed Denial of Service: Pulsing zombies and reflected attacks
- Local Denial of Service
- Maintaining Access
- Backdoors: Using Poison Ivy, VNC, Ghost RAT, and other popular beasts
- Trojan horse backdoors: A nasty combo
- Rootkits: Substituting binary executables with nasty variations
- Kernel-level Rootkits: Attacking the heart of the Operating System (Rooty, Avatar, and Alureon)
- Covering the Tracks
- File and directory camouflage and hiding
- Log file editing on Windows and Unix
- Accounting entry editing: UTMP, WTMP, shell histories, etc.
- Covert channels over HTTP, ICMP, TCP, and other protocols
- Sniffing backdoors and how they can really mess up your investigations unless you are aware of them
- Steganography: Hiding data in images, music, binaries, or any other file type
- Memory analysis of an attack
- Putting It All Together
- Specific scenarios showing how attackers use a variety of tools together
- Analyzing scenarios based on real-world attacks
- Learning from the mistakes of other organizations
- Where to go for the latest attack info and trends
- Hands-on Analysis
- Nmap port scanner
- Nessus vulnerability scanner
- Network mapping
- Netcat: File transfer, backdoors, and relays
- Microsoft Windows network enumeration and attack
- More Metasploit
- Exploitation using built in OS commands
- Privilege escalation
- Advanced pivoting techniques
- How to best prepare for an eventual breach
- The step-by-step approach used by many computer attackers
- Proactive and reactive defenses for each stage of a computer attack
- How to identify active attacks and compromises
- The latest computer attack vectors and how you can stop them
- How to properly contain attacks
- How to ensure that attackers do not return
- How to recover from computer attacks and restore systems for business
- How to understand and use hacking tools and techniques
- Strategies and tools for detecting each type of attack
- Attacks and defenses for Windows, UNIX, switches, routers, and other systems
- Application-level vulnerabilities, attacks, and defenses
- How to develop an incident handling process and prepare a team for battle
- Legal issues in incident handling



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug