Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Top 10 countries attracting international tech talent

Tech workers looking to make an international move are flocking to these 10 countries, where tech salaries are competitive and quality of life is high.

Making an international move can be dauting — but moving for a new job can take some of the pressure off. Using your skills and expertise to land a job in another country can offer a unique opportunity to experience different cultures and travel, while maintaining your resume.

And with tech talent in high demand around the world, enterprises are increasing efforts to recruit international tech talent and open tech hubs in foreign countries. A survey from global talent marketplace Andela found that 88% of enterprise companies are looking for top tech talent in other countries.  

But some countries are attracting tech talent from abroad at higher rates than others — such as The Netherlands, Germany, and the UK. These countries offer competitive salaries, a lower cost of living compared to other major tech hubs, and better opportunities for quality of life and work-life balance.

The following 10 countries people are moving to for technology opportunities, according to data from Relocate.me, along with the estimated annual salary for a software engineer from PayScale, and monthly cost of living for a single person based off data from Expatistan.

The Netherlands

The Netherlands is home to a rapidly growing tech industry, in particular, in Amsterdam, which boasts several innovation hubs, according to EuroNews. The innovation hubs include Amsterdam Science Park’s Startup Village, VU Starthub, and LAB42, which is a digital innovation hub located at the University of Amsterdam. Booking.com and TomTom were founded in Amsterdam, and companies such as Google, Canon, IBM, and Cisco each have offices located in the city. Several tech events take place in Amsterdam, including GOTO Amsterdam, Tech Summit Europe, Codemotion, and Reach Live, bringing tech workers from all around the world to network and connect in Amsterdam. Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht, and Eindhoven are other vibrant Dutch tech hubs.

Average annual salary (Amsterdam): US$62,783

Estimated monthly living costs (Amsterdam): US$3,376


Germany is another country that is boasting increasing tech talent imports. Capital Berlin, for one, has become a popular city for business relocation and international investments, with companies such as Volkswagen, Pfizer, and SAP having set up innovation labs there. Deutsche Bank launched its own tech hub in Berlin, pulling operations and staff from Russia amid Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. The city is also a Knowledge and Innovation Community (KIC) and part of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIC), which partners with organizations such as SAP, Siemens, and Deutsche Telekom, with a focus on innovation and development of IT industries. Münich, Frankfurt, Hamburg, and Stuttgart are among several more cities in Germany with vibrant tech scenes.

Average annual salary (Berlin): US$63,767

Estimated monthly living costs (Berlin): US$3,085


Canada is increasingly becoming a draw for ex-pat tech talent, with Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal leading the way. But capital city Ottawa is also rising, reporting around 94,100 tech employees in 2023, up from 81,200 in 2022, according to the CBRE’s annual ranking of Canadian and US tech hubs. Tech talent makes up just over 15% of total tech employment in Ottawa, compared to 11.6% in the San Francisco Bay Area. It’s also home to Canada’s largest tech park, called Kanata North Technology Park, home to more than 540 companies and 23,000 employees. In total, the businesses operating in the technology park brought in $13 billion to Canada’s GPD in 2018, including QNX Blackberry, Amazon Web Services, Nokia, Cisco, and Mitel. Several tech companies got their start in Ottawa, including Nortel, Corel, Cognos, Halogen Software, Shopify, and JDS Uniphase. Additionally, Adobe Systems, 3M, Nokia, IBM, and Hewlett-Packard all have offices in the area.

Average annual salary (Ottawa): US$60,023

Estimated monthly living costs (Ottawa): US$2,134

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom ranks fourth on Relocate.me’s list, with tech hubs throughout, including Manchester, Edinburgh, and Bristol. But the concentrated cluster of high-tech companies located in London known as East London Tech City, or the Silicon Roundabout, is a worthy standout. The tech boom in London started in 2008, when the recession dropped rents even further in this already low cost of living area, and it has since grown into a bustling tech hub as more tech companies moved in. Companies such as Google, Cisco, Facebook, Intel, McKinsey & Co., and Microsoft have since opened offices in the area. Those developments, along with the proximity of several universities in the city, have helped rank London second for concentrated tech talent, making it easier for businesses to recruit top talent, according to Z/Yen Group’s Smart Centres Index.

Average annual salary (London): US$62,587

Estimated monthly living costs (London): US$5,028


Switzerland is another highly popular crossroads for tech talent, buoyed by main IT hubs Zurich, Geneva, and Lausanne. Capital Bern is also quickly becoming a growing force, especially in the medtech, biotech, fintech, and cleantech industries, as the city has a longstanding reputation as being a hub for experts in healthcare, life sciences, and environmental sustainability. The city also has a growing base of tech startups, coming up right behind Zurich and Geneva as a top destination in Switzerland for startups, according to Startup Blink. Entrepreneurs benefit from the city’s co-working spaces, incubators, and accelerators, including Startup Hub Bern, Impact Hub Bern, and Innovationsdorf Bern, where they can access networks, mentors, and funding opportunities.

Average annual salary (Bern): US$103,715

Estimated monthly living costs (Bern): US$3,611


Sweden comes in at No. 6 on Relocate.me’s list, predominantly thanks to the vibrant tech scene in Stockholm, which is a major tech center in Europe, and also the country’s financial center, an industry that increasingly relies on technology for daily operations. Stockholm’s tech hub can be found in Kista, a northern suburb, and is considered Europe’s largest IT cluster. It’s also a strong hub for startups, boasting the second most unicorns per capita in the world, after Silicon Valley, and is home to the once-startups Spotify and Klarna. For tech workers making the move to Stockholm, they will also benefit from Sweden’s social supports, such as free education, free childcare, and other safety nets in place to support citizens.

Average annual salary (Stockholm): US$51,162

Estimated monthly living costs (Stockholm): US$2,727

United States

The US boasts a number of vibrant tech hubs, most notably Silicon Valley, Seattle, and New York. As the capital city of the United States, Washington, D.C., is home to a strong government industry, but there’s also been an influx of tech companies flocking to the city. According to CompTIA’s Tech Jobs Report, Washington topped the list compared to other metro areas in terms of tech job postings. The city is also home to several large universities and colleges, which means there’s a strong talent pool to hire from year after year. There’s a large draw for cybersecurity professionals, software developers, and healthtech workers — companies in the area include Boeing, ShieldAI, PwC, Salesforce, IBM, and Intuit.

Average annual salary (Washington): US$99,461

Estimated monthly living costs (Washington): US$4,583


Australia comes in at No. 8 on Relocate.me’s list, thanks to vibrant innovation centers in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, and Perth. The capital city Canberra has also been attracting software vendors, such as Tower Software and RuleBurst, to work with the many government customers in the area. There’s even plans for a billion-dollar data hub in Canberra to support private and government institutions in the space, defense, and education industries. In 2019, the Canberra Cyber Security Innovation Node was formed to support these industries further. The city has a reputation for innovation and has strong support from the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) — there are even plans to unveil a Cyber, Space, and Advanced Technology hub in the coming years.

Average annual salary (Canberra): US$50,244

Estimated monthly living costs (Canberra): US$2,474


Denmark ranks second on the 2023 World Happiness Report, and a study from Boston Consulting Group and Digital Hub Denmark found that digital workers in Denmark report high satisfaction rates, both with the workplace culture in Denmark and the financial support. Denmark also boasts one of the highest employment rates in Denmark, and according to the OECD Better Life Index, only 1.1% of Danish workers report working long hours, while the average worker reports spending up to 16 hours per day on “leisure and personal care.” Employees in Denmark typically work 37-hour weeks, with a standard 5 weeks of PTO each year, allowing for a healthy work-life balance. Companies such as IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, Zendesk, and SAP have innovation and development hubs located in Denmark. While Aalborg is a leading tech center in Denmark, the country’s main IT action all takes place in Copenhagen.

Average annual salary (Copenhagen): US$48,650

Estimated monthly living costs (Copenhagen): US$2,250


Belgium rounds out the top 10, and while Antwerp has become a tech hub, Brussels is the main attraction for tech talent. The capital city is home to several STEM universities and research institutes such as the National Fund for Scientific Research (NFSR), the Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium (RASAB), and the Belgium Academy Council of Applied Sciences (BACAS). In 2021, the European Digital Expertise Hub (EDIH), part of SussAIn Brussels, was established to promote AI and other emerging technologies in Brussels. The plan is to offer free guidance to Brussels businesses that are interested in embarking on digital transformation, with a €4 million budget that is co-financed by the European Commission and the Brussels Region. Brussels also has a growing startup scene, with startups such as FiscalNote, Izix, CentralApp, Drawbotics, and AppTweak setting up shop in the city.

Average annual salary (Brussels): US$47,422

Estimated monthly living costs (Brussels): US$2,400

Cisco predicts top 7 tech trends for 2023

Security, improved network efficiency, sustainability, and AI are among Cisco’s list of the seven technological trends for 2023.

Reem Asaad, Vice President, Cisco Middle East and Africa said: “The dominant theme throughout these trends is the pace of technological evolution that is continuing to accelerate. These technology trends are on the rise in their region and are shaping the future of every business across all industries, driven by ambitious national visions that are putting technology at the heart of governments’ initiatives in the Middle East and Africa. Today they are at the intersection of a vast potential such technologies hold, and the challenges that should be mitigated through robust security measures.”

“One of the key highlights we’re witnessing today more than ever is that businesses need to consider the social context of their actions. Increasingly, they see a focus on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) in the region. Whilst they realize that achieving sustainability is complex and multifaceted, what’s certain is that technology continues to play a pivotal role in driving ESG agendas for governments and enterprises,” she added.

Sustainability and AI

  • Sustainability
  • Net Zero will drive common standards to meet sustainability goals with advancements in Power Over Ethernet (PoE) design and hardware to transform data centers for a more sustainable future. Networking and APIs will become more advanced within data center platform management to monitor, track, and change the use of energy. IT vendors and equipment partners will be more transparent in their reuse of hardware (circularity) to move the needle with the sustainability processes.

  • Responsible AI
  • In 2023, they will see multiple, highly publicized instances of artificial intelligence used by some individuals and organizations to achieve unethical and socially destructive objectives. Industry, governments, academia, and NGOs will come together to begin hammering out a framework for governing AI in an ethical and responsible manner to mitigate potential harm. This framework will be based on principles such as Transparency, Fairness, Accountability, Privacy, Security, and Reliability and will ultimately be applied to model creation and the selection of training data as defining principles of AI systems.

    IT Security Trends

  • Quantum Cryptography
  • Transmitting keys is a fundamental risk to security, as they can be harvested and decrypted later. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is poised to be particularly impactful because it avoids any distribution of the keys over an insecure channel. In 2023, in preparation for a post-quantum world, they will see a macrotrend emerge with adoption of QKD in datacenters, IoT, autonomous systems, and 6G.

    4. Application and API Security

    As modern cloud-native applications are becoming drivers of business, protecting the underlying application environment is critical. In 2023, developers will get more and more support from various development tools that speed up development cycles and allow them to manage and secure distributed application architectures with an emphasis on delivering exceptional, secure digital experiences. They will also see continued movement toward tools that allow security experts to collaborate seamlessly on these outcomes.

    Business Efficiency and Resilience

  • Optimizing Multi-cloud Architectures
  • As deglobalization and issues around data sovereignty accelerate, in the year ahead they will see a noticeable shift in how companies leverage multi-cloud architectures. While 89% of enterprises are adopting a multi-cloud strategy for a variety of reasons (geopolitical, technical, provider diversification), the benefits come additional complexity in connecting, securing, and observing a multi-cloud environment. They will see a big move toward new multi-cloud frameworks such as Sovereign Clouds, Local Zone Clouds, Zero-Carbon Clouds, and other novel cloud offerings. This will create a path toward more private and edge cloud applications and services ushering in a new multi-cloud operating model.

  • Full-Stack Observability tied to Business Outcomes
  • The problem with monitoring has always been too much data with too little context and business correlation. The evolution of application monitoring toward full stack observability will increasingly provide a view relative to business context. When applied systematically, this will drastically speed up response and optimize business operations in real time. In 2023, business context will become widely recognized as an integral part of monitoring and visibility outcomes.

  • Internet of Things (IoT) makes supply chains more resilient
  • Enterprises and logistics providers will increasingly utilize IoT to bring full visibility into their supply chains in 2023. IoT and other technologies will not only play a larger role in bringing resiliency and efficiency into supply chains but will also Excellerate cybersecurity and IT/OT network management. As a result, enterprises and logistics providers will reconfigure supply chains around predictive and prescriptive models including smart contracts and distributed ledgers. This is a major transition toward more sustainable business practices and circular supply chains.

    Cisco to acquire cloud-native networking and security startup Isovalent

    Cisco announced this morning that it intends to acquire Isovalent, a cloud-native security and networking startup that should fit well with the company’s core networking and security strategy. The companies did not share the purchase price.

    Isovalent has helped develop eBPF, a key open source technology that gives developers deep insight into the operating system layer, typically Linux, but also Windows, while Cilium, another open source project created by the startup, gives visibility into cloud native applications. Tetragon is the company’s open source security visibility component.

    Tom Gillis, senior VP and general manager of Cisco’s Security Business Group, says the combination of these three elements used to be provided by a hardware appliance, but in the cloud world is increasingly software-driven. “In a cloud world, there’s still boxes in there somewhere, but it’s abstracted under layers and layers of software. And so eBPF and Cilium provide that visibility for cloud world,” he told TechCrunch.

    Specifically, that involves being able to see exactly what’s happening as an application interacts with the network, and being able to determine whether that looks normal or not. “What this allows anyone to do is to provide a very high level of visibility into the inner workings of an application. So when one little container is talking to another container, Cilium can intercept and see that traffic, and it can also see the inner workings of the OS itself,” he said. “So this becomes a platform that allows us to provide connectivity, like should this particular cluster talk to that particular cluster, yes or no. But also security inspection, like what are they talking about? Does this make sense? Does this thing look logical?”

    It’s worth noting that Cilium is the default connectivity and security piece for Google Kubernetes Engine, Google Anthos and Amazon EKS Anywhere. It’s also being used in a who’s who of large enterprises including Adobe, Bell Canada, Capital One, Datadog, Palantir, IKEA and Sky.

    It’s always tricky when a large company buys a startup built on popular open source projects like this and it could potentially cause consternation in both the community and the large companies who have come to depend on this software. Isovalent has key roles at the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) and eBPF Foundation, where they are also big code contributors. But Gillis says it’s in the best interest of everyone that the open source pieces thrive as a standard going forward.

    “In order for that to happen Cilium and eBPF need to thrive, and so the community needs to continue to embrace them because the ubiquity of the standard is what makes it so powerful,” he said. Gillis sees it a lot like Kubernetes, which Google created and then open sourced. “I oftentimes say it’s the Kubernetes of the data path. It allows it’s an open standard that all can participate in, allows everyone to innovate on top of this platform, and build amazing products,” he said.

    Jeetu Patel, executive vice president and general manager of security and collaboration at Cisco, said that it is essential for companies to work together where security is concerned. “One of the challenges that we’ve said is the true enemy [in security] is not your competitor, it’s the [common] adversary. And they need to make sure that they stay open in this market and co-innovate, and I think open source is probably one of the best models to co-innovate with,” Patel said.

    Cisco was familiar with the company, even before today’s announcement, having participated in the company’s $29 million Series A at the end of 2020. The startup added a $40 million Series B in 2022 with Cisco also participating along with other strategic investors including Microsoft, Google and Grafana Labs.

    Cisco has been extremely acquisitive this year, with this representing the eleventh acquisition by the company, the fifth related to security. The biggest of the bunch by far was the $28 billion Splunk deal announced in September.

    This deal is expected to close some time in the second quarter next year (the company’s third quarter of its fiscal year).


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug