Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Course Outline: LPIC-101 Certified Linux Administrator

This course prepares students to take the 101 test of the LPI level 1 certification. The Linux Professional Institute (LPI) is the go to certification body for vendor independent Linux certifications. This course covers fundamental Linux skills such as file management and manipulation, text processing, command line use, package management, filesystems, hardware, and many more. Students will feel confident taking the LPI LPIC-1 101 test with in classroom exams and practice exams.

Module 1: Work on the command line
 Role of command shell
 Shells
 Gathering system info
 Identifying the shell
 Changing the shell
 Shell prompts
 Bash: bourne-again shell
 Navigating the filesystem
 Help from commands and documentation
 Getting help within the graphical desktop
 Getting help with man $ info
 Bash: command line history
 Bash: command editing
 Bash: command completion
 Shell and environment variables
 Key environment variables Lab tasks
 Help with commands
 Linux shells
 Shell variables
 Bash history
 Aliases
Module 2: Use streams, pipes, and redirects
 File redirection
 Piping commands together
 Filename matching
 File globbing and wildcard patterns
 Brace expansion
 General quoting rules
 Nesting commands
 Gotchas: maximum command length
Lab tasks
 Redirection and pipes
 Wildcard file matching
 Shell meta-characters
 Command substitution
Module 3: Manage file permissions and ownership
 Filesystem hierarchy standard
 Displaying directory contents
 Filesystem structures
 Determining disk usage with df and du
 File ownership
 Default group ownership
 File and directory permissions
 File creation permissions with umask
 Changing file permissions
 Suid and sgid on files
 Sgid and sticky bit on directories
 User private group scheme
Lab tasks
 Navigating directories and listing files
 Disk and filesystem usage
 File and directory ownership and permissions
Module 4: Create, delete, find, and display files
 Directory manipulation
 File manipulation
 Deleting and creating files
 Physical unix file structure
 Filesystem links
 File extensions and content
 Which and type
 Whereis
 Searching the filesystem
 Alternate search method
 Manually installed shared libraries
Lab tasks
 Manipulating files and directories
Module 5: Work with archives and compression
 Archives with tar
 Archives with cpio
 The gzip compression utility
 The bzip2 compression utility
 The xz compression utility
 The pkzip archiving/compression format
Lab tasks
 Archiving and compression
 Using tar for backups
 Using cpio for backups
Module 6: Process text streams using filters
 Producing file statistics
 The streaming editor
 Replacing text characters
 Text sorting
 Duplicate removal utility
 Extracting columns of text
 Displaying files
 Prepare text for display
 Previewing files
 Displaying binary files
 Combining files and merging text
Lab tasks
 Text processing
 Processing text streams
Module 7: Search text files using regular expressions
 Searching inside files
 Regular expression overview
 Regular expressions
 Re character classes
 Regex quantifiers
 Re parenthesis
Lab tasks
 Pattern matching with regular expressions
 Extended regular expressions
 Using regular expressions with sed
Module 8: Perform basic file editing operations using vi
 Text editing
 Vi and vim
 Learning vim
 Basic vi
 Intermediate vi
Lab tasks
 Text editing with vim
Module 9: Create, monitor, and kill processes
 What is a process=>
 Process lifecycle
 Process states
 Viewing processes
 Signals
 Tools to send signals
 Managing processes
 Tuning process scheduling
 Job control overview
 Job control commands
 Nohup and disown
 Uptime
 Persistent shell sessions with screen
 Using screen
 Advanced screen
Lab tasks
 Job control basics
 Process management basics
 Screen basics
 Using screen regions
Module 10: Use rpm, yum, and debian package management
 Managing software
 Rpm architecture
 Working with rpms
 Querying and verifying with rpm
 Installing debian packages
 Querying and verifying with dpkg
 The alien package conversion tool
 Managing software dependencies
 Using the yum command
 Yumdownloader
 Configuring yum
 The dselect $ apt frontends to dpkg
 Aptitude
 Configuring apt
Lab tasks
 Working with rpms on ubuntu
 Querying the rpm database
Module 11: Work with partitions, filesystems, and disk quotas
 Partition considerations
 Logical volume management
 Filesystem planning
 Partitioning disks with fdisk $ gdisk
 Resizing a gpt partition with gdisk
 Partitioning disks with parted
 Filesystem creation
 Filesystem support
 Unix/linux filesystem features
 Swap
 Selecting a filesystem
 Filesystem maintenance
 Mounting filesystems
 Mounting filesystems
 Managing an xfs filesystem
 Nfs
 Smb
 Filesystem table (/etc/fstab)
 Configuring disk quotas
 Setting quotas
 Viewing and monitoring quotas
Lab tasks
 Hot adding swap
 Accessing nfs shares
 Setting user quotas
Module 12: Linux boot process
 Booting Linux on pcs
 Grub 2
 Grub 2 configuration
 Grub legacy configuration
 Boot parameters
 Init
 Linux runlevels aliases
 Systemd local-fs.target and sysinit.target
 Runlevel implementation
 System boot method overview
 Systemd system and service manager
 Systemd targets
 Using systemd
 Shutdown and reboot
 System messaging commands
 Controlling system messaging
Lab tasks
 Command line messaging
 Messaging with talkd
 Boot process
 Grub command line
 Basic grub security
Module 13: Determine and configure hardware settings
 Managing Linux device files
 Hardware discovery tools
 Configuring new hardware with hwinfo
 Pc architecture and bus
 Dma $ irq
 Usb devices
 Usb configuration
 Configuring kernel components and modules
 Kernel modules
 Handling module dependencies
 Configuring the kernel via /proc/
 Kernel hardware info – /sys/
 /sys/ structure
 Random numbers and /dev/random
Lab tasks
 Adjusting kernel options
Module 14: linux fundamentals
 Unix and its design principles
 Fsf and gnu
 Gpl – general public license
 The linux kernel
 Components of a distribution
 Red hat linux products
 Suse linux products
 Debian
 Ubuntu
 Logging in
 Got root=>
 Switching user contexts
Gathering login session info
Lab tasks
 Login and discovery
 Switching users with su



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug