Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 156-115.80
Exam Name : Check Point Certified Security Master - R80 (CCSM)
Vendor Name : Checkpoint
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156-115.80 test Format | 156-115.80 Course Contents | 156-115.80 Course Outline | 156-115.80 test Syllabus | 156-115.80 test Objectives


Exam ID : 156-115.80
Exam Title : Check Point Certified Security Master - R80
Questions : 100
Pass Marks : 70%
Duration : 90 minutes

- How policy changes impact chain module behavior
- Identify the source of UGI client connectivity problems
- Troubleshoot Secure Internal Communication issues
- Configure VPN Tunnel Interface
- Deploy IPv6 in a local environment
- Use commands to clear the connections table
- Configure Open Shortest Path First
- Troubleshoot NAT stages
- Identify connections in ClusterXL debug file

The Check Point Security Master course is designed for security experts who need to perform advanced deployment configurations of a Security Gateway and are working towards their Check Point Certified Cyber Security Master (CCSM) certification.

Our top technical certification proves the ability to perform advanced troubleshooting
• CCSMs get Expert level access to SecureKnowledge
• The CCSM is entitled to fast path access to Tier 3 Support
• Their CCSMs belong to a small group of elite security professionals in the world

CCSM Objectives
Chapter 1 - Advanced Database Management
• Obtain a deeper knowledge of the Security Management Architecture.
• Understand how the Security Management Server uses key processes and debugs.
• Review how objects are represented in the database.
• Understand how GuiDBedit operates.
Do you know…=>
What is Solr=>
Which ports are used for SIC=>
Which database does R80.x use for storing all objects=>
What is the syntax of a command for debugging issues with the internal Certificate Authority=>
Which process is responsible for the Management HA synchronization=>
Which command can be used to see the list of processes monitored by the Watch Dog process=>
Chapter 2 – Kernel Mode and User Mode Troubleshooting
• Understand how to use fw monitor to capture packets.
• Understand how to use the fw debug process and debug infrastructures for User mode debugging.
• Discuss how to enable and use core dumps when a User mode process crashes.
Do you know…=>
When running a debug with fw monitor, which parameter will create a more verbose output=>
What is the proper command for allowing the system to create core files=>
Which command will clean the buffer and change all kernel debug properties to the default=>
What are benefits of the ‘fw ctl zdebug command=>
Which directory are the usermode core files located in=>
What are some special considerations that should be taken into consideration while running fw monitor on production firewall=>
Chapter 3 - SmartConsole and Policy Management
• Understand how to troubleshoot and debug SmartConsole issues.
• Understand how to troubleshoot and debug issues that may occur during policy installation.
Do you know…=>
Which process is first called when the policy installation command is initiated from the SmartConsole=>
Explain what the SCConfigManager.exe tool is used for and how to use it=>
What information is contained in a crash report from a SmartConsole application crash=>
Chapter 4 – Advanced Network Address Translation
• Understand how to troubleshoot and debug NAT issues using Gaia commands.
• Understand Client Side and Server Side NAT.
• Describe how to configure port mapping services.
Do you know…=>
Which kernel debug flag should you use to troubleshoot NAT connections=>
What is the difference between Client-Side and Server-Side NAT=>
What table would you review to investigate a port exhaustion error when using Hide NAT=>
Chapter 5 - VPN Troubleshooting
• Recognize how to debug VPN-related issues.
Do you know…=>
Which Check Point utility should be used use to assist in analyzing the output of vpn and ike debug=>
What is the benefit of running “vpn debug trunc” over “vpn debug on”=>
Which command would you use in the process of deleting the IPSec Key to a specific given
• Understand the infrastructure processes and components used for policy installation and processing packets in Access Control policies.
• Understand how to troubleshoot and debug issues that may occur with Application Control and URL Filtering.
• Understand how to debug HTTPS Inspection related issues.
• Understand how to troubleshoot and debug Content Awareness issues.
Do you know…=>
Which Daemon should be debugged for HTTPS Inspection related issues=>
Which daemon would you debug if you have issues with acquiring identities via identity sharing and sharing identities with other gateways=>
What does CMI stand for in relation to the Access Control Policy=>
Packet processing infrastructure consists of which components=>
• Understand how to troubleshoot and debug issues that may occur with Threat Prevention Policies.
• Understand how to troubleshoot Anti-Bot and Antivirus issues.
• Discuss how to use IPS Bypass to manage performance issues.
• Understand how to configure IPS to reduce false positives.
Do you know…=>
Which process is enabled when the Policy Conversion process has the debug turned on using the INTERNAL_POLICY_LOADING=1 command=>
Which daemon is the main CLI process and daemon for Threat Extraction=>
How many layers are incorporated in IPS detection and what are they called=>
Which daemon is responsible for anti-spam=>
Which Threat Prevention daemon is the core Threat Emulation engine and responsible for emulation files and communications with Threat Cloud=>
What are some measures you can take to prevent IPS false positives=>
Chapter 8 – Optimization and Tuning
• Understand how the server hardware and operating system affects the performance of the Security Gateway.
• Understand how to evaluate hardware configurations for optimal performance.
• Discover additional tools to assist in monitoring CPU utilization.
Do you know…=>
What is the command to check the number of CoreXL firewall instances=>
What is the default and maximum number of entries in the ARP Cache Table in a Check Point appliance=>
How long (in hours) does the CPSizeMe script run by default=>
Chapter 9 – Advanced Clustering
• Understand how to monitor cluster status and work with critical devices.
• Recognize how to troubleshoot state synchronization.
Do you know…=>
Which command would you use in order to test a ClusterXL failover=>
What ClusterXL mechanism is used to verify that the interfaces of other cluster members are UP and communicates the status of cluster members=>
What ClusterXL mechanism is used to verify that the interfaces of other cluster members are UP and communicates the status of cluster members=>
What does changing the cphaconf set_ccp parameter do=>
What command can the administrator run to view the status of the registered critical devices=>
What does changing the cphaconf set_ccp parameter do=>
• Recognize how to use fwaccel and sim to enable and disable accelerated traffic.
• Understand how to use fwaccel dbg and sim dbg commands.
• Understand how to configure CoreXL to enhance Security Gateway performance.
Do you know…=>
What mechanism can be used to confirm that important traffic such as control connections are not dropped when a Security Gateway is under high load=>
What table does the command "fwaccel conns" pull information from=>
Which command would show the synchronization statistics between cluster members=>
What is the command to view the SecureXL connection table=>
Which command would you use to check CoreXL instances for IPv6 traffic=>
What does SIM handle=>
Chapter 11 – Deploying IPv6
• Understand how to deploy IPv6 in a local environment
Do you know…=>
How would an administrator view the routing table on the Security Gateway of production network where IPv6 is being used=>
What is the command to monitor IPv6 traffic in Expert mode=>
Which Check Point feature is not supported when running IPv6=>



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug