Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Questions and answers from the ‘Car Doctor’

Q. I am a pretty serious DIY mechanic who is thinking of moving to auto repair as a full-time job. I have seen you mention Harbor Freight tools in your column. When I am in a shop/dealership I see Snap-On and other big toolboxes and wonder how Harbor Freight hand tools and boxes stack up.

A. Snap-On tools are great, but unfortunately some entry technicians get financially over extended and end up paying $100 a week or more to the tool truck for the rest of their lives. Expensive tools do not make a good technician, and do not buy tools to show off, buy tools to do the job. You can buy different levels of professionals tool boxes, hand tools at Harbor Freight that can provide you years of service. Also look for used tools. On of my co-worker’s dad shut down his shop and was selling his tools, boxes and more. I would have guessed about $10,000 worth of tools. He sold them for $2500. This was a great deal for both the experienced technician and someone getting into the business. There is a YouTuber, the Humble Mechanic and he put out a video about putting together a good starter tool set for $2500. It is worth watching. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1sJsCKAJew

Q. I went in for a routine oil and rotation, the mechanic at my dealer suggested a fuel injector cleaning for $200. I own a 2019 Forester with 25,500 miles. He said they normally do it at 40,000 miles but figured I do short drives, might be wise. I typically drive one or two days per week and usually short and quick stops with maybe one long drive per week. Would you say wait? How could one know if this service is truly needed (gas mileage has not changed nor has how the car drives). And would you do it at a dealer or independent shop?

A. Fuel injector cleaning cannot hurt but may not be necessary. Although the dealer may recommend it, I have never seen Subaru corporate recommend it as a preventative measure. You are better off using quality fuel (www.toptiergas.com) and if you are still concerned add a bottle of fuel injector cleaner once or twice per year.

Q. My car handles worse and bounces more after I had installed new struts. What could be wrong?

A. Since it is worse now, I would want to recheck the work, you could have a defective strut. Also, the wheel alignment may not have been corrected after the repair. New struts should have given you a more controlled ride, with less bounce. When performing the repair hopefully the shop checked the top bearing and springs to make sure they were in good shape before installing the new struts. Many shops also use complete strut assemblies that include the springs and bearings which make for a complete repair. If this was the case, it is even possible the struts were not the proper part for your car.

Q. So, if you had a choice would you buy a Honda Civic R, Subaru WRX, Volkswagen Golf R or Hyundai Elantra N? I am looking for something small, quick, and stylish.

A. I have not driven a Volkswagen product in years, based on past experiences the Golf R was the most mature choice of these cars. The Civic R which I just evaluated, handled great, the engine was fun to run up to the “redline” the brakes were as good as the engine. The Subaru WRX, like the Golf R, has the advantage of all-wheel drive. The Hyundai Elantra N is down on power compared to some of the competitors but still performs quite well. They are all great cars, for me, the Civic R as good as it was geared to a younger driver. I feel I am too old to drive a car with a big spoiler on the rear deck. So, If I had to pick based on cars, I have evaluated the Elantra N would be my choice.

Q. Several weeks ago, my 17-year-old son, using his own money purchased a car for $4500. The car, an Audi A 4 seemed to be a good deal, but he then returned to the same seller, because it had a bad vibration. The second car, this time a BMW, turned out to have a fraudulent title as well as an odometer that had been turned back. They discovered this through a Carfax report. I was informed by both my son and his best friend that they attempted to get even some of their money back and return the car, but the seller refused. Now the seller will not even take his calls. Do you have any suggestions as to how they might proceed to rectify this issue/problem?

A. The first thing that needs to be determined is if the seller was a legitimate car dealer or someone who just buys and sells cars without a license. The seller may be someone who just “jumps” titles selling a car they purchased without re-titling it in their name. Depending on where you live, state agencies rarely get involved in private party sales. If they are a legitimate car dealer you may be able to get some help through a dealer organization or the Attorney General in your state. Odometer and title fraud are subject to both state and federal laws and can carry serious fines. At this point you may need to contact an attorney that specializes in automobile fraud.

Got a car question, email the Car Doctor for a personal reply. jpaul@aaanortheast.com

Answers to Educators’ Most Frequently Asked Questions About Artificial Intelligence

2023 was the year of AI for K-12 education.

Artificial intelligence and its use had been gradually gathering momentum for years, but when ChatGPT arrived, AI suddenly became easily accessible to everyone. Anyone can use ChatGPT and other tools like it, which hold humanlike conversations and instantly answer seemingly any prompt.

Since then, K-12 educators across the country have been thinking about what and how much of a role AI should play in instruction, especially as experts say today’s students need to learn how to use the technology effectively to be successful in future jobs.

ChatGPT has been around for about a year, and there are teachers using it to craft lesson plans, communicate with parents, and show students how AI technologies work. Still, many educators say they are not prepared to teach with and about AI and have many questions about the benefits and drawbacks of the technology for teaching and learning.

Below are answers to five frequently asked questions about AI in K-12 education.

1. What are the dangers of AI?

AI tools are trained at a certain time, and the data sets they are trained on are not updated regularly, so these tools can provide outdated information or can fabricate facts when asked about events that occurred after they were trained.

And because the data sets on which the AI tools are trained contain biased information, that is also included in the responses generated by the tools. These AI tools, if left unchecked, could amplify harmful stereotypes and fuel misinformation and disinformation.

To combat the inaccuracies that come with using these AI models, some education organizations are focusing on a version of the technology some are calling “walled-garden AI .” A walled-garden AI is trained only on content vetted by its creator, instead of all the unchecked content all over the internet.

2. How can educators incorporate AI in the classroom?

Experts agree that it’s important for educators to play around with the AI technologies first before introducing them into the classroom so they can get a sense of the strengths and weaknesses of the tools. Some teachers are already using AI to create lesson plans, provide feedback to students, and communicate with parents.

Students need to learn how to use AI technologies as assistants or advisers, experts say. One way to do that would be for teachers to allow the use of ChatGPT for class assignments but require students to acknowledge and document how it was used. For example, a student who used ChatGPT to get feedback on a draft essay can explain which of the tool’s suggestions she agreed with and which ones she didn’t. By using this approach, students can learn how to use the tool as a partner, instead of having it do all the work for them. It could also build on students’ ability to evaluate and analyze writing.

Other ways educators are using AI

3. Can AI help diverse learners?

Some teachers have found uses for ChatGPT and similar tools that help diverse learners with their assignments. For example, teachers can use ChatGPT to reduce Lexile levels —the measure for how difficult a text is—for English learners. Special education teachers are already using AI to minimize paperwork and generate individualized education programs, or IEPs.

However, teachers need to remember that generative AI tools can spit out biased or incorrect information. Researchers also found that some AI cheating-detector tools incorrectly flagged writing by non-native English learners as being AI-generated.

In addition, special education services often include sensitive information that would be risky or potentially even illegal to share on a publicly accessible AI platform that absorbs all the data it receives.

4. What is the best way to pursue professional development on this topic?

To get educators more comfortable with AI , they need time to use the technology as teachers and as learners, time to try different approaches with students, and opportunities to collaborate with colleagues and talk about what works and what doesn’t, according to experts. Teacher-preparation programs can also start to lay a foundational understanding of AI and start cultivating skills for effectively harnessing those tools so by the time teachers get in the classroom, they are ready to integrate AI into students’ learning experiences.

5. What policies have districts put into place to address AI use in classrooms?

Most districts still haven’t set clear policies or guidelines about the proper use of AI tools in the classroom. Just two states, California and Oregon, have provided official AI guidance to schools, according to an analysis by the Center on Reinventing Public Education at Arizona State University . Part of the reason for that could be that the technology is changing so quickly and educators fear policies they set will be outdated not long after they’re released.

When crafting AI-use guidelines, two major issues to address include ensuring teachers understand AI’s strengths and weaknesses and keeping student data safe, educators say . Guidelines should also address student academic integrity, which is one of teachers’ major concerns.

Several education organizations have created checklists and guidelines for districts to use as they craft policies around generative AI. Generative AI Readiness Checklist from the Consortium for School Networking and the Council of the Great City Schools and AI Guidance For Schools Toolkit from the Teach AI initiative are two examples.

During this process, it’s important to include teachers, students, and parents, as they might come up with questions and challenges that district leaders might not think of, experts say.

Memphis' new barbecue contest: Questions (and answers) about what organizers have planned

Memphis is about to have two barbecue cooking contests — at the same time.

Forward Momentum, the producer of Mempho Music Festival and Mempho Presents, will host a yet-to-be-named barbecue cooking contest in Tom Lee Park on the same weekend of 46th Memphis in May World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest, which will be held at Liberty Park. The Memphis in May World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest will be May 15-18, and the new barbecue contest will be May 16-18

The Nov. 22 announcement of the new barbecue contest has left both contestants and attendees full of questions.

We reached out to the organizers of the new contest for answers.

Why did Forward Momentum want to create a new barbecue contest in Memphis?

A new barbecue competition will be held in May at Tom Lee Park in Downtown Memphis.

“We are very excited about the new park and wanting to do events there,” said Forward Momentum spokesperson Milton Lovell, adding the goal is to create a world class cooking contest that also offers guests a memorable experience.

“There was a strong desire from the business community to have a barbecue event on the river. Memphis in May started as an event to bring people Downtown. They are committed to creating a safe and comfortable event that brings tourists and residents Downtown.”

In October, Memphis in May announced it would move the barbecue contest to Liberty Park in 2024. In an email to barbecue teams on Sept. 26, Memphis in May President and CEO Jim Holt said the move was due to the "difficulties" Memphis in May experienced with the current park manager, Memphis River Parks Partnership.Memphis in May’s 2023 events at Tom Lee resulted in $1,425,366 damages to the park, which park officials said was largely caused by the barbecue contest. In September, Memphis River Parks filed a lawsuit against Memphis in May, seeking to collect an outstanding balance of $675,000 for the damages to Tom Lee.

Who is organizing this new barbecue contest?

Forward Momentum is in the process of putting together a steering committee to spearhead the event.

“We want a diverse group of stakeholders involved,” Lovell said. “It will include teams, Downtown businesses and Memphis leaders.”

Mempho Presents co-producer Mike Smith said they are "allowing the barbecue teams to drive this event and have input."

"It will be a three-way partnership between Forward Momentum, the festival organizers and the barbecue teams," he said.

As of Tuesday, Nov. 28, award-winning pitmaster and restaurateur Carey Bringle is the only announced committee member. Bringle is the owner of Nashville-based barbecue restaurant Peg Legged Porker and has competed in the Memphis in May contest for more than 30 years. While he lives in Nashville, Bringle said he has strong roots in the Memphis area as his family is originally from Covington.

Why did Forward Momentum announce a contest with limited information?

Lovell said plans for the new contest have been in the works for awhile and organizers originally hoped to roll out the announcement with more details. When they saw Memphis in May open team applications on Nov. 21, they wanted to let people know that this new contest would be happening as well.

More specific details about the contest are expected to be finalized and shared with the public in the coming weeks.

What do barbecue teams think?

Multiple teams contacted by The CA declined to comment and posed multiple questions about the new competition. Teams expressed frustration over both events happening on the same weekend and the dilemma of having to make a choice without all the information on the new contest.

“Was anyone thinking about us? The teams?” said Van Raby, a founding member of the team Barbecue Republic. The Memphis-based team has competed in the Memphis in May contest for 30 years and placed second in Whole Hog in 2023. “There is a lot of emotion, blood, sweat and tears teams put into this contest.”

What does Memphis in May have to say about the competing contest?

“While they were surprised and disappointed by the announcement, their mission has not changed,” Memphis in May President and CEO Jim Holt said in a letter to barbecue teams on Nov. 27.

Randy Blevins, Memphis in May Vice President of Marketing and Programming, said they had received a record number of team applications in the opening week, including many of the “heavy hitters” and several international teams. "It's been a robust response and they are historically on par with what they have always done, even in pre-pandemic times."

The contest also plans to return to its normal size contest now that there are not the space constraints they faced this year in the newly renovated Tom Lee Park.

“In 2024, the Memphis in May World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest will be returning to a full-scale world championship contest in the scope and scale that has made it the barbecue cooking contest it is today,” Blevins said.

MEMPHIS BARBECUE: From spaghetti to shrimp to ... cornish hen? 5 Memphis barbecue dishes you need to try

What are the competition categories in the new barbecue contest?

Expect the main categories of Whole Hog, Shoulder and Ribs at the new festival.

What about the ancillary Anything But and Sauce contests or the Patio Porkers division?

Smith said they will be adding categories in collaboration with the advisory committee.

Where will the barbecue contest be held in Tom Lee Park?

A new barbecue cooking contest is coming to Tom Lee Park in Downtown Memphis in May.

Smith said the layout is still in the works, but the design of the contest grounds will include riverfront-facing booths and scaffolding structures.

“We will be keeping the park in mind, as well as the guest,” he said.

Both Lovell and Smith said they believe having a fresh perspective will allow them to create an event that is a better fit for the renovated park.

“We know that there will need to be changes for this contest to be successful,” Smith said. “A brand-new set of eyes looking at the issues will enable us to manage this event better.”

How can there be two contests in the same weekend? Isn’t there a governing body that prevents this?

The answer is no.

Memphis in May is its own sanctioning body, setting its own unique judging rules and scoring.

The new festival will also set its own rules and be its own sanctioning body.

Neither is associated with the Kansas City Barbecue Society.

Who are the judges?

A new barbecue contest is coming to Tom Lee Park in Downtown Memphis in May.

While the judging body has yet to be announced, Bringle said they are talking with experienced judging groups.

Bringle said many longtime competitors have become frustrated with the judging process at Memphis in May as first-time, unexperienced judges are now judging finals. He said the goal for the new festival is to have qualified judges in finals rounds.

What are the fees for participating teams?

Fees for participating teams have yet to be announced.

“We are going to work with the steering committee to ensure fair fees. They are going to lean on their barbecue partners to make sure they are charging fair prices,” said Smith, adding he anticipates their fee structure will make this contest more inclusive to all types of teams.

BLUFF CITY BBQ TOUR: 5 Memphis barbecue sandwiches in just 4 hours. Here's what they ate.

What about volunteers?

The Memphis in May contest has a large network of volunteers, helping out in various aspects from communications to judging.

Smith said the new festival will have small roles for volunteers, but they will hire staff for most positions for the events.

Will the prize money be the same?

Smith said they will be increasing the prize money offered in the major categories.

“We are committed to a substantial award,” Lovell added. “We want to be rewarding teams for their efforts.”

The Memphis in May contest will offer $150,000 in prize money in the 2024 contest.

What about events like Piggy Idol and sauce wrestling?

“We are going to put on an event around the competition that is the caliber of what they do,” Smith said.

He said they will focus on creating unique signature experiences for the new contest and will be steering away from Memphis in May’s signature events.

“We will have lots of different activities to bring people Downtown,” said Smith, explaining the new interactive activities will utilize the park space differently than Memphis in May had. “Tom Lee Park has a ton of infrastructure that will make it fun. They are excited.”

Jennifer Chandler is the Food & Dining reporter at The Commercial Appeal. She can be reached at jennifer.chandler@commercialappeal.com and you can follow her on Twitter and Instagram at @cookwjennifer.

If you want to keep up with the tastiest news in the Bluff City — like the story above, sign up for their Eat Drink Memphis weekly newsletter for a hearty serving of stories on everything from restaurants to recipes. You can sign up here.

This article originally appeared on Memphis Commercial Appeal: Memphis' new BBQ contest: What they know about Forward Momentum event


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug