Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Over 3,000 Openfire servers vulnerable to takover attacks


Thousands of Openfire servers remain vulnerable to CVE-2023-32315, an actively exploited and path traversal vulnerability that allows an unauthenticated user to create new admin accounts.

Openfire is a widely used Java-based open-source chat (XMPP) server downloaded 9 million times.

On May 23, 2023, it was disclosed that the software was impacted by an authentication bypass issue that affected version 3.10.0, released in April 2015, until that point.

Openfire developers released security updates in versions 4.6.8, 4.7.5, and 4.8.0 to address the issue. Still, in June, it was reported [1, 2] that the flaw was actively exploited to create admin users and upload malicious plugins on unpatched servers.

As highlighted in a report by VulnCheck vulnerability researcher Jacob Baines, the OpenFire community has not rushed to apply the security updates, with over 3,000 servers remaning vulnerable.

To make matters worse, Baines says there's a way to exploit the flaw and upload plugins without creating an admin account, making it far more inviting and less noisy for cybercriminals.

Too many unpatched servers

VulnCheck reports that Shodan scans reveal 6,324 internet-facing Openfire servers, of which 50% (3,162 servers) still remain vulnerable to CVE-2023-32315 due to running an outdated version.

Only 20% of users have patched, 25% use a version older than 3.10.0, which is when the vulnerability was introduced to the software, and another 5% run forks of the open-source project that may or may not be impacted.

VulnCheck comments that while the number might not be impressive, it is substantial considering the role these servers play in communication infrastructure, handling sensitive information, etc.

A better PoC

Current public exploits for CVE-2023-32315 rely on creating an admin user to allow the attackers to upload malicious Java JAR plugins that open reverse shells or execute commands on the compromised servers.

Real-world exploitation examples include the threat actors behind the Kinsing crypto-miner botnet, who exploit the vulnerability to install a custom-crafted Openfire plugin that initiates a reverse shell on the vulnerable server.

However, existing exploits to create admin users are noisy, making it easy for defenders to detect breaches from the audit logs. Unfortunately, VulnCheck's report highlights a stealthier way to exploit the flaw without creating random admin accounts.

In their PoC example, the analysts showcase a way to extract the JSESSIONID and CSRF token by accessing 'plugin-admin.jsp' directly and then uploading the JAR plugin via a POST request.

The plugin is accepted and installed on the vulnerable server, and its webshell can be accessed without requiring an admin account.

Because this attack does not leave traces in the security logs, it is a lot stealthier than what current exploits do and eliminates detection opportunities for defenders.

As CVE-2023-32315 is already under active exploitation, including from a botnet malware, VulnCheck's PoC could fuel a second attack wave that's more formidable.

Therefore, admins of Openfire servers who have not upgraded to a patched release are urged to do so as soon as possible.

CTET Syllabus 2023 PDF Download: Paper 1 & 2 Syllabus

CTET Syllabus 2023 consists of Paper 1 and Paper 2. Paper 1 is for those who wish to become teachers for Classes 1 to 5 while Paper 2 is for those who wish to become teachers for Classes 6 to 8. Get the detailed CTET syllabus here for Paper 1 and 2 to plan a comprehensive strategy to crack the exam.  

CTET Syllabus 2023

CTET syllabus 2023 is prescribed by the test organising body which is the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). The test is held annually twice a year in offline mode, i.e. pen and paper mode. CBSE will be organising the 17th edition of the CTET 2023 test on 20th August. Hence, all the candidates who will be appearing for the test must be familiar with the latest CTET syllabus that has been discussed here. 

CTET syllabus consists of two papers, paper 1 and paper 2. Paper 1 is attempted by those candidates who wish to teach Classes 1 to 5 while Paper 2 is attempted by those who plan on teaching the students of Classes 6 to 8. No change has been observed in the CTET syllabus 2023. The CTET syllabus includes the following topics: 

  • Child Development & Pedagogy
  • Environmental Studies 
  • Mathematics 
  • Social Studies 
  • Science
  • Language I
  • Language II
  • The CTET syllabus for Paper 1 and 2 have common subjects, hence, the syllabus remains the same. However, in CTET syllabus for Paper 2, the candidates are given a choice to opt for either Mathematics and Science or Social Studies subject. Get the detailed CTET syllabus for each subject here. 

    ⇒ Download CTET Admit Card 2023

    CTET Syllabus 2023 Overview

    The CTET test is held in offline mode where multiple choice questions are asked. The test is held in 20 languages for both Paper 1 and Paper 2. Each paper is for 2.5 hours. Every question is for 1 mark while there is no negative marking for an incorrect question attempted by the candidates. Before they get to discuss the CTET syllabus, let us supply you a brief overview of the CTET syllabus in the table below. 

    CTET Syllabus 2023 - Highlights


    Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)

    Name of Exam

    CTET 2023 Exam

    CTET test Date

    20th August 2023 (Sunday)

    No. of papers in CTET

    Two papers, Paper 1 and Paper 2

    CTET test Duration

    2.5 hours (for each paper)

    Total languages in which the test is held

    20 languages

    Maximum Marks

    150 marks (for each paper)

    Type of questions asked

    Multiple Choice Questions

    Mode of Exam

    Offline (OMR Based)

    Marking Scheme

    1 mark for each correct answer

    Negative Marking

    No negative marking for wrong answers

    CTET Syllabus 2023 Subject Wise For Paper 1 & Paper 2

    The CTET test consists of two papers, Paper 1 and Paper 2. Candidates who want to become teachers for classes 1 to 5 have to appear for Paper 1 while those who wish to be teachers for classes 6 to 8 have to appear for Paper 2. However, candidates can appear for both papers as well. CTET Paper 1 syllabus consists of subjects from Child Development and Pedagogy, Language-I, Language-II, Mathematics and Environmental Studies. On the other hand, CTET Paper 2 syllabus comprises subjects from Child Development and Pedagogy, Language-I, Language-II, Mathematics and Science or Social Studies/Social Sciences.

    Through the CTET exam, it will be determined if the candidates are eligible to teach the students of class 1 to 8 or not. Candidates will have to obtain the CTET cut off marks in the test to be eligible to obtain the CTET certificate that shall be valid for a lifetime. 

    Check CTET Eligibility Criteria

    CTET test Pattern 2023 for Paper 1

    CTET syllabus for Paper 1 is for those who are aiming to teach the students of classes 1 to 5. The subjects that are included in the CTET Paper 1 syllabus are Child Development and Pedagogy, Language – I, Language – II, Mathematics and Environmental Studies. Each paper is f0r 30 marks, thereby, making the test for a total of 150 marks. Practicing CTET question paper gives you a good knowledge of the CTET test pattern. The subject wise syllabus for CTET paper 1 is given below in the table. 

    CTET test Pattern for Paper 1 

    CTET Subjects

    Number of Questions in CTET Paper 1


    Child Development and Pedagogy



    Language – I



    Language – II






    Environmental Studies






    CTET test Pattern 2023 for Paper 2

    There are five subjects in CTET Paper 2. The subjects that are covered in CTET Paper 2 are Child Development and Pedagogy, Language-I, Language-II, Mathematics and Science or Social Studies/Social Sciences. Candidates have the choice to opt any one subject from Mathematics and Science or Social Studies/Social Science. Each paper is for 30 marks having 30 questions. Thus, the CTET Paper 2 is for a total of 150 marks. Check the details for CTET test pattern for paper 2 below in the table. 

    CTET Paper 2 test Pattern

    CTET Subjects

    Number of Questions in CTET Paper 2


    Child Development & Pedagogy (compulsory)



    Language-I (compulsory)



    Language-II (compulsory)



    Mathematics and Science (for Mathematics and Science teacher)


    Social Studies/Social Science (for Social Studies/Social Science teacher)


    Mathematics, Science and Social Studies/Social Science (for teacher of any other subject)






    CTET Syllabus: Child Development & Pedagogy Syllabus

    Child Development and Pedagogy are two of the CTET’s important subjects that are covered in the CTET syllabus for both Paper 1 and Paper 2. This section will have the following given topics: 

  • Child Development (Primary School Child)
  • Concept of Inclusive Education and Understanding Children with Special Needs
  • Learning and Pedagogy
  • The CTET Child Development and Pedagogy syllabus aims to concentrate on the educational psychology of teaching and learning for children aged 6 to 13 years. Check the topic-wise syllabus below. 

    CTET Syllabus for Child Development and Pedagogy 


    Detailed Syllabus

    Number of Questions

    Child Development (Primary School Child)

  • Concept of development and its relationship with learning
  • Principles of the development of children
  • Influence of Heredity & Environment
  • Socialization processes: Social world & children (Teacher, Parents, Peers)
  • Piaget, Kohlberg and Vygotsky: constructs and critical perspectives
  • Concepts of child-centred and progressive education
  • Critical perspective of the construct of Intelligence
  • Multi-Dimensional Intelligence
  • Language & Thought
  • Gender as a social construct; gender roles, gender-bias and educational practice
  • Individual differences among learners, understanding differences based on diversity of language, caste, gender, community, religion, etc.
  • The distinction between Assessment for learning and test of learning; School-Based Assessment, Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation: perspective and practice
  • Formulating appropriate questions for assessing readiness levels of learners; for enhancing learning and critical thinking in the classroom and for assessing learner achievement.
  • 15

    Concept of Inclusive education and understanding children with special needs

  • Addressing learners from diverse backgrounds including disadvantaged and deprived
  • Addressing the needs of children with learning difficulties, ‘impairment’ etc.
  • Addressing the Talented, Creative, Specially abled Learners
  • 5

    Learning and Pedagogy

  • How children think and learn; how and why children ‘fail’ to achieve success in school performance.
  • Basic processes of teaching and learning; children’s strategies of learning; learning as a social activity; social context of learning.
  • Child as a problem solver and a ‘scientific investigator’
  • Alternative conceptions of learning in children, understanding children’s ‘errors’ as significant steps in the learning process.
  • Cognition & Emotions
  • Motivation and learning
  • Factors contributing to learning - personal & environmental
  • Addressing learners from diverse backgrounds including disadvantaged and deprived
  • Addressing the needs of children with learning difficulties, ‘impairment’
  • Addressing the Talented, Creative, Specially abled Learners
  • 10

    CTET Syllabus: Language 1 Syllabus

    CTET syllabus for Language 1 focuses on proficiency with the teaching medium. The language section I of CTET syllabus focuses on proficiency with the teaching medium. This section is considered to be the most scoring section, therefore, candidates will need to do a careful planning to able to achieve the target. The detailed CTET Language 1 syllabus is given in the table below. 

    CTET Language 1 Syllabus


    Detailed Syllabus

    Number of Questions

    Language Comprehension

  • Reading unseen passages - two passages one prose or drama and one poem with questions on comprehension, inference, grammar, and verbal ability (Prose passage may be literary, scientific, narrative, or discursive)
  • 15

    Pedagogy of Language Development

  • Learning and acquisition
  • Principles of language Teaching
  • Role of listening and speaking; function of language and how children use it as a tool
  • Critical perspective on the role of grammar in learning a language for communicating ideas verbally and in written form
  • Challenges of teaching language in a diverse classroom, language difficulties, errors and disorders
  • Language Skills
  • Evaluating language comprehension and proficiency: speaking, listening, practicing and writing
  • Teaching- learning materials: Textbook, multi-media materials, multilingual resource of the classroom
  • Remedial Teaching
  • 15

    CTET Language 2 Syllabus

    CTET Language 2 syllabus focus on language and comprehension skills. This section has 30 questions for 30 marks. Each section The detailed CTET Language 2 syllabus is given in the table below. 

    CTET Language 2 Syllabus


    Detailed Syllabus

    Number of Questions


  • Two unseen prose passages (discursive or literary or narrative or scientific) with questions on comprehension, grammar, and verbal ability
  • 15

    Pedagogy of Language Development

  • Learning and acquisition
  • Principles of language Teaching
  • Role of listening and speaking; function of language and how children use it as a tool
  • Critical perspective on the role of grammar in learning a language for communicating ideas verbally and in written form;
  • Challenges of teaching language in a diverse classroom; language difficulties, errors and disorders
  • Language Skills
  • Evaluating language comprehension and proficiency: speaking, listening, practicing and writing
  • Teaching - learning materials: Textbook, multimedia materials, multilingual resource of the classroom
  • Remedial Teaching
  • 15

    CTET Maths Syllabus 

    The subjects that are covered in CTET Maths syllabus are class 10th based. Candidates should know the fundamentals of Mathematics that will help them solve the paper quickly and with maximum accuracy. The Maths section consists of 30 questions for 30 marks. The detailed CTET Maths syllabus is given in the table below. 


    Detailed Syllabus

    Number of Questions


  • Number System
  • Integers
  • Fractions
  • Decimals
  • Algebra
  • Simple and Compound Interest
  • Time and Distance
  • Ratio and Proportion
  • Geometry
  • Basic geometrical ideas (2-D)
  • Understanding Elementary Shapes (2-D and 3-D)
  • Symmetry: (reflection)
  • Construction (using Straight edge Scale, protractor, compasses)
  • Mensuration
  • Data handling
  • 20

    Pedagogical issues

  • Nature of Mathematics/Logical thinking
  • Place of Mathematics in Curriculum
  • Language of Mathematics
  • Community Mathematics
  • Evaluation
  • Remedial Teaching
  • Problem of Teaching
  • 10

    CTET Syllabus: CTET EVS Syllabus 

    Environment Studies is a part of the CTET syllabus. It focuses on the student’s pedagogical knowledge and problem solving skills. The CTET EVS syllabus has a total of 30 questions for 30 marks. Check the detailed syllabus in the table below. 


    Detailed Syllabus

    Number of Questions


  • Family and Friends:
  • Food
  • Shelter
  • Water
  • Travel
  • Things They Make and Do
  • 15

    Pedagogical Issues

  • Concept and scope of EVS
  • Significance of EVS, integrated EVS
  • Environmental Studies & Environmental Education
  • Learning Principles
  • Scope & relation to Science & Social Science
  • Approaches of presenting concepts
  • Activities
  • Experimentation/Practical Work
  • Discussion
  • CCE
  • Teaching material/Aids Problems
  • 15

    CTET Science Syllabus

    Candidates who opt to appear for the CTET test for Science will have to study Physics, Chemistry and Biology based on Class 10h level. Questions will be basic general science-based that any candidate can attempt without much emphasis on it. Check the details CTET Science syllabus in the table below. 

    CTET Syllabus for Science


    Detailed Syllabus

    Number of Questions


  • Food
  • Sources of food
  • Components of food
  • Cleaning food
  • Materials
  • Materials of daily use
  • The World of the Living
  • Moving Things People and Ideas
  • How things work
  • Electric current and circuits
  • Magnets
  • Natural Phenomena
  • Natural Resources
  • 20

    Pedagogical issues

  • Nature & Structure of Sciences
  • Natural Science/Aims & objectives
  • Understanding & Appreciating Science
  • Approaches/Integrated Approach
  • Observation/Experiment/Discovery (Method of Science)
  • Innovation
  • Text Material/Aids
  • Evaluation - cognitive/psychomotor/affective
  • Problems
  • Remedial Teaching
  • 10

    CTET Syllabus for Social Science 

    The Social Science syllabus has subjects that cover History, Geography and Political Science. The syllabus also covers pedagogical concerns as well. Candidates should have a good grasp over the important days and dates in History, maps, constitution, the Preamble, etc. Check the detailed CTET Social Science Syllabus below in the table. 

    CTET Syllabus for Social Science


    Detailed Syllabus

    Number of Questions



  • When, Where and How
  • The Earliest Societies
  • The First Farmers and Herders
  • The First Cities
  • Early States
  • New Ideas
  • The First Empire
  • Contacts with Distant lands
  • Political Developments
  • Culture and Science
  • New Kings and Kingdoms
  • Sultans of Delhi
  • Architecture
  • Creation of an Empire
  • Social Change
  • Regional Cultures
  • The Establishment of Company Power
  • Rural Life and Society
  • Colonialism and Tribal Societies
  • The Revolt of 1857-58
  • Women and reform
  • Challenging the Caste System
  • The Nationalist Movement
  • India After Independence
  • Geography

  • Geography as a social study and as a science
  • Planet: Earth in the solar system
  • Globe
  • Environment in its totality: natural and human environment
  • Air
  • Water
  • Human Environment: settlement, transport, and communication
  • Resources: Types-Natural and Human
  • Agriculture
  • Social and Political Life

  • Diversity
  • Government
  • Local Government
  • Making a Living
  • Democracy
  • State Government
  • Understanding Media
  • Unpacking Gender
  • The Constitution
  • Parliamentary Government
  • The Judiciary
  • Social Justice and the Marginalized
  • 40

    Pedagogical issues

  • Concept & Nature of Social Science/Social Studies
  • Class Room Processes, activities and discourse
  • Developing Critical thinking
  • Enquiry/Empirical Evidence
  • Problems of teaching Social Science/Social Studies
  • Sources - Primary & Secondary
  • Projects Work
  • Evaluation
  • 20

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug