Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Properly set a Cisco router’s clock and time zone

Does setting the correct time on a router really matter? Actually, it does. In this edition of Cisco Routers and Switches, David Davis reviews the benefits of setting the correct time on your router, and he walks you through the three-step process to configure the correct time.

Last year, I wrote an article about why Cisco devices shoulduse Network Time Protocol (NTP) for their time synchronization needs, in whichI explained how to configure NTP on your Cisco devices (“Synchronizea Cisco router’s clock with Network Time Protocol (NTP)”). Using NTPis the ideal method for medium to large-scale networks.

However, if you have only a handful of routers, manuallysetting the clock may be the easiest way to properly configure your devices’times. Let’s walk through the process.

If a Cisco router boots up before you’ve configured a localtime or network time source, it will display the date as March 1, 1993. Here’san example:

Router> show clock *00:01:10.415 UTC Mon Mar 1 1993 Router>

This date’s appearance on log files is a good indicationthat no one has set the router’s time source or local time. This is much morelikely than the router’s log entries actually dating back to 1993.

Does setting the correct time on a router really matter? While proper timeconfiguration isn’t necessary for a router to fully operate, that doesn’t meanyou shouldn’t set the right time. Here are some of the benefits of setting thecorrect time on a router:

Configure the time zone

When setting a router’s (or switch’s) correct time, thefirst step is configuring the proper time zone. This is the first step for areason: If you set the time first and then try to set to the time zone, you’llhave to reset the time again.

The key point to remember is that it’s not enough to know thatyou’re in the Eastern or Pacific time zone. You need to know how many hours youare from Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

For example, if you’re in the Eastern Standard Time zone inthe United States, you’re five hours behind GMT. You would indicate this to therouter with -5. If you’re unsure how many hours you are from GMT, the U.S.Navy’s Web site offers a great resource—the World Time Zone Map.

After you’ve determined your time zone value, you can setthe time zone. For example, I live in the Central Standard Time (CST) zone, sohere’s how I would configure the router:

Router(config)# clock timezone CST -6 Configure Daylight Saving Time

After setting the appropriate time zone, you need toconfigure the router to adjust for Daylight SavingTime. You can use the summer-timecommand to accomplish this. Using their CST zone example, here’s how to configurethe router to use Daylight Saving Time:

Router(config)# clock summer-time CDT recurring

The summer-timecommand tells the router to refer to Daylight Saving Time as Central Daylight Time(CDT), which will automatically occur according to predefined dates and times onthe router. (You can use the same command to manually set the date and time forDaylight Saving Time.) The recurringoption tells the router to use the accepted U.S. Daylight Saving Time rules forthe annual time changes in April and October.

Configure the clock

After configuring the time zone and Daylight Saving Time, thelast step is to configure the router’s clock. You must do this while in PrivilegedMode—not Global Configuration Mode.

If you’ve never done this before, the format can be a bittricky. Here are some things to keep in mind:

  • Usethe clock set command.
  • Usemilitary time.
  • Includeseconds when setting the time.
  • Specifythe month using its three-letter abbreviation.
  • Addthe date and the year.
  • Here’s an example:

    Router# clock set 10:50:00 Oct 26 2006 View the time

    After configuring the time zone, Daylight Saving Time, andthe clock, you can view the clock using the showclock command. Here’s an example:

    Router# show clock 10:51:33.208 CDT Thu Oct 19 2006 Router#

    Keep in mind that most Cisco routers and switches don’t haveinternal clocks that store the time when you power them off. That means rebootinga device will lose the set local time. However, the time zone will remain set becausethe router stores it in its configuration.

    For more information on Cisco IOS time configuration, checkout Cisco’sdocumentation for the various clockcommands. How do you set the time on routers or switches? Do you set itmanually or use NTP? What other router and switch Topics would you like to see covered?Share your comments in this article’s discussion.

    Miss a column?

    Check out the Cisco Routers and SwitchesArchive, and catch up on David Davis’ most latest columns.

    Want to learn moreabout router and switch management? Automaticallysign up for their free Cisco Routers and Switches newsletter, delivered eachFriday!

    David Davis has workedin the IT industry for 12 years and holds several certifications, includingCCIE, MCSE+I, CISSP, CCNA, CCDA, and CCNP. He currently manages a group ofsystems/network administrators for a privately owned retail company andperforms networking/systems consulting on a part-time basis.

    Cisco Live 2023

    Cisco Live 2023

    Cisco Live 2023 promises a re-imagined IT experience complete with new innovations in networking, security and collaboration, to name a few, as the tech giant continues its journey toward building top tech platforms for MSPs and end customers.

    Bookmark this page for the latest news and exclusive interviews with top executives and channel partners.

    Partners Applaud Cisco’s Sustainability Focus With Data Center, Webex Control Hub Updates‘Everyone has a sustainability goal, but it’s very hard to actually measure and track and figure out what my improvements actually did in terms of environmental impact. Cisco has done a pretty good job of turning that into a dashboard through Control Hub,’ says Joe Berger, area vice president of digital experiences at Cisco Gold partner World Wide Technology.

    Cisco Channel Chief Tuszik On Networking Cloud, FSO, And How Generative AI Can Help Partners Grow Their Businesses“When you look at the Cisco Live announcements; if it’s Networking Cloud, the security piece, what we’re doing with Webex or FSO, they all are offers, rather, solutions that they bring into the market that are ready to be delivered in a managed-as-a-service motion,” Cisco Channel leader Oliver Tuszik told CRN.

    Cisco Injects Generative AI Into Security, Collaboration Portfolios For ‘Reimagined’ Customer Experiences‘We were going to be investing very heavily in this notion of AI just being part of the fabric of everything … One of the big challenges they have in their industry is shortage of skill and talent, and they can make sure that every single person can become this very sophisticated user when they start using their products,’ Cisco’s EVP of Security and Collaboration Jeetu Patel tells CRN.

    Cisco Webex Go With AT&T Addresses Cloud Calling For Mobility-Minded PartnersThe tech giant has teamed with AT&T to help more businesses move to the cloud for their calling needs, while unlocking new mobility opportunities for partners, the company announced at Cisco Live 2023.

    Cisco Live 2023: Cisco ELT’s 5 Big StatementsCEO Chuck Robbins, alongside the tech giant’s executive leadership team, talk about Cisco’s AI, networking and security launches, as well as the biggest trends happening in the IT industry on-stage at Cisco Live 2023.

    Cisco Security Cloud Platform Now Includes SSE, Multi-Cloud Feature, Firewall Updates‘When you have 70 players on average that are part of the security stack, that’s 70 different policy engines and 70 different cracks in the system. The efficacy of companies is going down when they buy point solutions and so what their customers are telling us is [they] need an integrated platform,’ Cisco’s Jeetu Patel tells CRN.

    Cisco Builds On Security Platform Strategy, Unveils Unified Networking PlatformFollowing in the footsteps of its Security Cloud platform, the tech giant debuts its Cisco Networking Cloud strategy at Cisco Live 2023 to the delight of channel partners.

    Cisco Accelerates Platform Push With New Full Stack Observability Platform‘Cisco is using the term full stack observability and they mean it. Full stack creates a platform, which means, essentially, an ecosystem of observability and monitoring, and very few players have anything close to that,’ Cisco Gold partner NTT tells CRN.

    Is Cisco Systems Stock Ready to Soar?

    While many tech companies that serve enterprises are experiencing increasing caution from their customer bases, networking-hardware giant Cisco Systems (CSCO 0.94%) has been an exception. The company handily beat analyst expectations for the fiscal fourth quarter, which ended on July 29. Total revenue grew 16% year over year to $15.2 billion, while adjusted earnings per share shot up 37% to $1.14.

    Shares of Cisco rose Thursday morning on the good news. Despite solid growth from the company over the past year, Cisco stock has barely edged out the S&P 500 in 2023. And over the past five years, it has lost badly to the broad stock market index.

    With Cisco's business booming, should investors bet on a market-beating rally?

    The core business is strong but a slowdown is coming

    One of Cisco's core strategies over the past few years has been to grow its software business. While Cisco's security and collaboration segments are software-heavy, software has also become a more important piece of the core networking segment.

    Software revenue grew by 17% year over year in the fourth quarter, and subscription software revenue was up 20%. By adding sources of recurring revenue, Cisco ultimately makes its revenue more predictable and less prone to big swings driven by economic conditions.

    It was the core networking segment that did most of the heavy lifting for Cisco in the fourth quarter. Revenue in this segment soared 33% year over year and accounted for more than half of total revenue. The rest of Cisco's bigger segments were less impressive.

    Internet for the Future, which includes optical networking and 5G-related products, grew by just 3%, while the security segment was flat. The collaboration segment suffered a 12% decline.

    Soaring demand for artificial intelligence (AI) should help Cisco in the long run. Training advanced AI models involves building vast clusters of GPUs or other AI chips, and moving data fast enough across the cluster is critical. Cisco's Silicon One family of chips is designed for extreme data throughput. Although this AI-centric business isn't contributing much to the top and bottom lines right now, Cisco views it as a significant long-term opportunity.

    While Cisco's fourth-quarter results were impressive, the company expects a significant slowdown entering fiscal 2024. It sees full-year revenue between $57 billion and $58.2 billion, up just 0% to 2%, compared to fiscal 2023. Profit will grow faster, with adjusted earnings per share (EPS) guidance of $4.01 to $4.08, representing 4% growth at the midpoint.

    Cisco's product backlog exploded during the pandemic due to supply chain constraints, and now the backlog is being worked down as the situation improves. The backlog was still double the normal level at the end of the fourth quarter, although the company expects much of the excess to be worked off in the first quarter of fiscal 2024. As the backlog normalizes, so will Cisco's growth rate.

    An attractive price

    Cisco's growth will ebb and flow, depending on economic conditions and other factors. The company's sluggish forecast for fiscal 2024 shouldn't be a concern for long-term investors.

    At around $55 per share, Cisco stock trades for about 14x adjusted earnings. That looks reasonable and perhaps attractive, as long as the company can accelerate growth past fiscal 2024. The company also pays a solid dividend that currently yields about 3%.

    While Cisco stock looks like a solid investment, a huge rally doesn't look like it's in the cards. Fiscal 2024 will be a relatively tough year, compared to fiscal 2023, and there's always a chance that worsening economic conditions will cause Cisco to come up short of its guidance. Also, the stock's valuation isn't so low that a big multiple expansion looks likely anytime soon.

    The bottom line: Cisco stock is a buy, but don't expect it to trounce the broader market.

    Timothy Green has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool has positions in and recommends Cisco Systems. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug