Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 200-901
Exam Name : DevNet Associate (DEVASC)
Vendor Name : Cisco
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200-901 test Format | 200-901 Course Contents | 200-901 Course Outline | 200-901 test Syllabus | 200-901 test Objectives


Exam Number : 200-901
Exam Name : DevNet Associate (DEVASC)
Duration: 120 minutes
Available languages: English, Japanese

This test tests your knowledge of software development and design, including:
- Understanding and using APIs
- Cisco platforms and development
- Application development and security
- Infrastructure and automation

The DevNet Associate test v1.0 (DEVASC 200-901) test is a 120-minute test associated with the Cisco Certified DevNet Associate certification. This test tests a candidate's knowledge of software development and design including understanding and using APIs, Cisco platforms and development, application development and security, and infrastructure and automation. The course, Developing Applications and Automating Workflows Using Cisco Core Platforms, helps candidates to prepare for this exam.

15% 1.0 Software Development and Design
1.1 Compare data formats (XML, JSON, and YAML)
1.2 Describe parsing of common data format (XML, JSON, and YAML) to Python data structures
1.3 Describe the concepts of test-driven development
1.4 Compare software development methods (agile, lean, and waterfall)
1.5 Explain the benefits of organizing code into methods / functions, classes, and modules
1.6 Identify the advantages of common design patterns (MVC and Observer)
1.7 Explain the advantages of version control
1.8 Utilize common version control operations with Git
1.8.a Clone
1.8.b Add/remove
1.8.c Commit
1.8.d Push / pull
1.8.e Branch
1.8.f Merge and handling conflicts
1.8.g diff
20% 2.0 Understanding and Using APIs
2.1 Construct a REST API request to accomplish a task given API documentation
2.2 Describe common usage patterns related to webhooks
2.3 Identify the constraints when consuming APIs
2.4 Explain common HTTP response codes associated with REST APIs
2.5 Troubleshoot a problem given the HTTP response code, request and API documentation
2.6 Identify the parts of an HTTP response (response code, headers, body)
2.7 Utilize common API authentication mechanisms: basic, custom token, and API keys
2.8 Compare common API styles (REST, RPC, synchronous, and asynchronous)
2.9 Construct a Python script that calls a REST API using the requests library
15% 3.0 Cisco Platforms and Development
3.1 Construct a Python script that uses a Cisco SDK given SDK documentation
3.2 Describe the capabilities of Cisco network management platforms and APIs (Meraki, Cisco DNA Center, ACI, Cisco SD-WAN, and NSO)
3.3 Describe the capabilities of Cisco compute management platforms and APIs (UCS Manager, UCS Director, and Intersight)
3.4 Describe the capabilities of Cisco collaboration platforms and APIs (Webex Teams, Webex devices, Cisco Unified Communication Manager including AXL and UDS interfaces, and Finesse)
3.5 Describe the capabilities of Cisco security platforms and APIs (Firepower, Umbrella, AMP, ISE, and ThreatGrid)
3.6 Describe the device level APIs and dynamic interfaces for IOS XE and NX-OS
3.7 Identify the appropriate DevNet resource for a given scenario (Sandbox, Code Exchange, support, forums, Learning Labs, and API documentation)
3.8 Apply concepts of model driven programmability (YANG, RESTCONF, and NETCONF) in a Cisco environment
3.9 Construct code to perform a specific operation based on a set of requirements and given API reference documentation such as these:
3.9.a Obtain a list of network devices by using Meraki, Cisco DNA Center, ACI, Cisco SD-WAN, or NSO
3.9.b Manage spaces, participants, and messages in Webex Teams
3.9.c Obtain a list of clients / hosts seen on a network using Meraki or Cisco DNA Center
15% 4.0 Application Deployment and Security
4.1 Describe benefits of edge computing
4.2 Identify attributes of different application deployment models (private cloud, public cloud, hybrid cloud, and edge)
4.3 Identify the attributes of these application deployment types
4.3.a Virtual machines
4.3.b Bare metal
4.3.c Containers
4.4 Describe components for a CI/CD pipeline in application deployments
4.5 Construct a Python unit test
4.6 Interpret contents of a Dockerfile
4.7 Utilize Docker images in local developer environment
4.8 Identify application security issues related to secret protection, encryption (storage and transport), and data handling
4.9 Explain how firewall, DNS, load balancers, and reverse proxy in application deployment
4.10 Describe top OWASP threats (such as XSS, SQL injections, and CSRF)
4.11 Utilize Bash commands (file management, directory navigation, and environmental variables)
4.12 Identify the principles of DevOps practices
20% 5.0 Infrastructure and Automation
5.1 Describe the value of model driven programmability for infrastructure automation
5.2 Compare controller-level to device-level management
5.3 Describe the use and roles of network simulation and test tools (such as VIRL and pyATS)
5.4 Describe the components and benefits of CI/CD pipeline in infrastructure automation
5.5 Describe principles of infrastructure as code
5.6 Describe the capabilities of automation tools such as Ansible, Puppet, Chef, and Cisco NSO
5.7 Identify the workflow being automated by a Python script that uses Cisco APIs including ACI, Meraki, Cisco DNA Center, or RESTCONF
5.8 Identify the workflow being automated by an Ansible playbook (management packages, user management related to services, basic service configuration, and start/stop)
5.9 Identify the workflow being automated by a bash script (such as file management, app install, user management, directory navigation)
5.10 Interpret the results of a RESTCONF or NETCONF query
5.11 Interpret basic YANG models
5.12 Interpret a unified diff
5.13 Describe the principles and benefits of a code review process
5.14 Interpret sequence diagram that includes API calls
15% 6.0 Network Fundamentals
6.1 Describe the purpose and usage of MAC addresses and VLANs
6.2 Describe the purpose and usage of IP addresses, routes, subnet mask / prefix, and gateways
6.3 Describe the function of common networking components (such as switches, routers, firewalls, and load balancers)
6.4 Interpret a basic network topology diagram with elements such as switches, routers, firewalls, load balancers, and port values
6.5 Describe the function of management, data, and control planes in a network device
6.6 Describe the functionality of these IP Services: DHCP, DNS, NAT, SNMP, NTP
6.7 Recognize common protocol port values (such as, SSH, Telnet, HTTP, HTTPS, and NETCONF)
6.8 Identify cause of application connectivity issues (NAT problem, Transport Port blocked, proxy, and VPN)
6.9 Explain the impacts of network constraints on applications



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug