Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae

Written by the Priests and Pastoral Associates of Priests for Life


This study guide is based on the Vatican Translation of Humanae Vitae


Table of Contents:



Introduction to the Study Guide

Summary of the Introduction to the Encyclical and Section I: New Aspects of the Problem and Competency of the Magisterium

A Summary of Section II. Doctrinal Principles

Summary of Section III. Pastoral Directives 

Essay: Finding Their Way Back Home

Essay: Life, Purity and Humanae Vitae

Essay: The Transmission of Life -- On Whose Terms?

The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony

Glossary of Terms




A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae

Fr. Frank Pavone, National Director, Priests for Life


Forty years is not a long time in Church history. Indeed, they are still living in the moment of Humanae Vitae (issued on July 25, 1968), and of the challenge it presents to the world.

Humanae Vitae does not identify the key problem of their day in the realm of sex or birth or "the pill," but rather in the myth that they can be God. Pope Paul writes at the beginning of the document, "But the most remarkable development of all is to be seen in man's stupendous progress in the domination and rational organization of the forces of nature to the point that he is endeavoring to extend this control over every aspect of his own life -- over his body, over his mind and emotions, over his social life, and even over the laws that regulate the transmission of life” (n.2).


The Pope here is painting a wider vision of the problem. They think everything belongs to us, but the reality is that they belong to God. "Humanae Vitae" means "Of human life." Human life came from God, belongs to God, and goes back to God. "You are not your own," St. Paul declares. "You have been bought, and at a price" (1 Cor. 6:19-20). Sex and having children are aspects of a whole cluster of realities that make up their lives and activities. They suffer from the illusion that all of these activities belong to us. “This is my life, my body, my choice.


The problem they face is not that their society is obsessed with sex. Rather, it is afraid of it-- afraid of the total reality and power of what it represents, where it comes from, and where it leads. Sex properly understood requires that they acknowledge God who made it. More than that, sex can never be separated from its purpose: to insert us into this immense, powerful movement of life and love that started when God said "Let there be light" (Genesis 1:3) and culminates when the Spirit and the Bride say "Come, Lord Jesus!" (Revelation 22:17).


Sexual activity means so much that it is wrong to diminish its message or deny its full reality: it belongs in the context of committed love (sealed by marriage) and openness to life precisely because this is the only context great enough to hold its message and reflect the greater reality to which the gift of sexuality points us and to which it commits us.


This is a reality that is bigger than all of us. It is the self-giving which starts in the Trinity, and is revealed in a startling way on the Cross, and then challenges each of us in their daily interaction with others, with God, and with their own eternal destiny. It is so real and so big that it is scary. That's why so many today are afraid of the full reality and meaning of sex. That's why Pope Paul VI wrote Humanae Vitae.


That is also why their Priests for Life pastoral team wrote this Study Guide. They have also established a special website, www.HumanaeVitae40.com, to promote the teachings of this document. It is their daily prayer that this effort will lead many believers to understand, embrace, and proclaim the beautiful truth of human life. 




James J. Pinto, Jr., M.E.V.Editor: A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae 


This Study Guide will be most effective if one first thoroughly familiarizes himself with its content and layout. Review the table of contents and the location of each section listed. The Study Guide is to be used by an individual or group as a side by side companion with the text  of Humanae Vitae included in this booklet. The three Essays offer unique insight with questions for further discussion. The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony presents a riveting and practical witness to why Humanae Vitae is the wholesome truth.


The Glossary assists the reader in clarifying some key terms contained in the Encyclical. Glossary terms are listed by the number/paragraph in which they first appear. The terms will be marked with an *asterisk in the Humanae Vitae text as a note to the reader that the term is contained in the Glossary. 


After practicing Fr. Pavone’s Foreword one should read the Summary of the Introduction and Section I, followed by the practicing of the Introduction and Section I. of Humanae Vitae itself. After completing the Introduction and Section I. of Humanae Vitae; the reader answers the series of questions below the Summary of the Introduction and Section I.  The sequence followed for the Introduction and Section I is repeated for each following section: practicing the Study Guide Section Summary, practicing of the corresponding Encyclical section itself and returning to the Study Guide questions for that particular section. The questions are meant to refer the reader back to particular paragraphs/numbers (n.or n.n.) of that section where he/she will find the answers. One may work on the answers to these questions while practicing the paragraph/number, or, wait until he/she has read the entire section and then complete the answers. Continual returning to the text of the encyclical helps emphasize that the document itself is the primary source of instruction and the basis for individual and group applications. 


The three Essays have several questions at their conclusion to help foster reflection and discussion. A personal witness to the truth and wisdom of Humanae Vitae is presented in The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony. 


This Study Guide is meant to be a “springboard” to delve more deeply into Humanae Vitae and its themes, in order to stimulate reflection, and a lifestyle of holiness. 


For those considering the possibility of facilitating a study group, this study guide lends itself to a discussion study group method of learning. While a leader/facilitator encourages the group and keeps it “on track”, it is the individual sharing and group dynamic that contribute most to the learning process. The facilitator is not a lecturer, neither is he there to supply all the answers. The facilitator seeks to shepherd the group learning process and does everything possible to solicit their contributions. Members interact and learn from everyone, including the facilitator. A Facilitator’s Guide is available through Priests for Life at www.HumanaeVitae40.com. The Facilitator’s Guide seeks to assist you in leading a group and lays out suggested study sessions.


It is their hope, that on the fortieth anniversary of Humanae Vitae, this study guide will assist in promoting the Church’s clear and authoritative word on transmitting human life. May all who hear this true, prophetic and lovely word be assured that: the Church has always issued appropriate documents on the nature of marriage, the correct use of conjugal rights, and the duties of spouses. These documents have been more copious in accurate times. (n.4)


Best Wi-Fi routers for 2023

The best Wi-Fi routers offer an easy way to supply your home network a major upgrade that everyone in your household can take advantage of. You can also save a lot of money over their lifespan as you won’t have to rent a router from your internet service provider.

From devices with Wi-Fi 6 and Wi-Fi 6E to the latest ones with Wi-Fi 7 support, we’ve rounded up the best Wi-Fi routers for every budget and home. However, if you have a large multi-story house and notice there are places where your Wi-Fi signal just can’t reach, you might be better off checking out one of the best mesh Wi-Fi systems instead. 

In order to determine which Wi-Fi routers are truly the best, they put them through extensive real-world testing but they also use networking benchmark software like IXChariot and iPerf3. They also test each of the Wi-Fi routers they review at 5, 50, 75 and 100 feet to measure their range and throughput. Additionally, they see how well each Wi-Fi router performs when it comes to pushing data through walls and ceilings.

If you’re tired of paying a monthly fee for your router or just want a more capable device that lets you take full advantage of your internet speed, these are the best Wi-Fi routers you can get today. 

The quick list

Below you'll find everything you need to know at a glance about the best Wi-Fi routers available today. Whether you're looking for an inexpensive and compact router or a larger one with plenty of Ethernet ports, there's something here for every budget.

Netgear Nighthawk RAXE500Best overall

1. Netgear Nighthawk RAXE500

Best Wi-Fi router overall

The Netgear Nighthawk RAXE500 is a tri-band Wi-Fi router with Wi-Fi 6E support. It has a 2.5 Gbps WAN port for multi-gig internet along with four gigabit LAN ports and two USB 3.0 ports. The RAXE500 has a range of 105 feet and delivered 2.39 Gbps speeds at 15 feet in their tests.

Read more below

Asus RT-AX86UBest customization

Best Wi-Fi router for customization

The Asus RT-AX86U is a Wi-Fi 6 router that's reasonably priced and highly customizable. At the back you'll find a gigabit as well as a 2.5 Gbps WAN port, four gigabit Ethernet ports and two USB 3.0 ports. The RT-AX86U has a range of 95-feet and it delivered 929 Mbps at 15 feet in their tests.

Read more below

Netgear Orbi WiFi 6E (RBKE963)Best range

3. Netgear Orbi WiFi 6E (RBKE963)

Best Wi-Fi router for range

The Netgear Orbi WiFi 6E is a Wi-Fi 6E mesh router system with excellent performance. The main unit has a 10 Gbps WAN port, three gigabit LAN ports and a 2.5 Gbps LAN port. The Orbi RBKE963 has a range of 95 feet and it delivered gigabit speeds at 15 feet in their tests.

Read more below

TP-Link Archer AX6000Best value

Best value Wi-Fi router

The TP-Link Archer AX6000 is a reasonably priced Wi-Fi 6 router with security software built-in. It has a 2.5 Gbps WAN port, eight gigabit LAN ports, two USB 3.0 ports and even a USB-C port. The Archer AX6000 has a range of 85 feet and it delivered speeds of 884 Mbps at 15 feet in their tests.

Read more below

Asus ROG Rapture GT-AX11000Best for gamers

5. Asus ROG Rapture GT-AX11000

Best Wi-Fi router for gamers

The Asus ROG Rapture GT-AX11000 is a Wi-Fi 6 gaming router with a gigabit WAN port, a 2.5 Gbps LAN port, four gigabit LAN ports and two USB 3.1 Gen 1 ports. The GT-AX11000 has a range of 95 feet and delivered 731 Mbps of data at 50 feet in their tests.

Read more below

Reyee RG-E5Best on a budget

Best budget Wi-Fi router

The Reyee RG-E5 is an inexpensive Wi-Fi 6 router that's really compact. It has a gigabit WAN port along with four gigabit LAN ports and a button on top that lets you create a mesh network with other Reyee devices. The RG-E5 has a 100 foot range and it delivered 849 Mbps at 15 feet in their tests.

Read more below

Best Wi-Fi router overall

Netgear Nighthawk RAXE500

Netgear Nighthawk RAXE500 (Image credit: Netgear)

A Wi-Fi 6e speed demon


Wi-Fi Spec: Wi-Fi 6e/Tri-band

Number of Antennas/Removable: 8/No

Ports: 1 WAN/4 LAN gigabit per second, 2 USB 3.0

Throughput: 2.396Gbps

Size: 12.0 x 8.6 x 3.3 inches

Reasons to buy +

Top speeds with 6GHz band


Very customizable


Security software built-in

Reasons to avoid -

Throughput declines quickly with distance

The Netgear Nighthawk RAXE500 was the first Wi-Fi 6e router to hit the market, and the results are mind-blowing. By adding the new 6-GHz band to the already impressive capabilities of Wi-Fi 6, the Nighthawk RAXE500 delivers category-leading performance — but at $599, it's not cheap.

This tri-band device more than lives up to the hype by delivering 2.39 Gbps at 15 feet during their testing. Add this to the slick design and highly customizable configuration options, and the Netgear Nighthawk RAXE500 becomes one of the best wireless routers we've ever reviewed. While it’s best at close quarters and is one of the more expensive routers on this list, the RAXE500 is worth every penny if you have the need for speed.

Read their full Netgear Nighthawk RAXE500 review. 

Best Wi-Fi router for customization

Asus RT-AX86U router review

Asus RT-AX86U (Image credit: Asus)

Great for a full house, and for gaming


Wi-Fi Spec: Wi-Fi 6/Dual-band

Number of Antennas/Removable: 3/Yes

Ports: 1 WAN/1 Multi-Gig WAN/ 4 LAN gigabit per second, 2 USB 3.0

Peak Throughput: 929.7Mbps

Size: 9.0 x 6.7 x 3.1 inches

Reasons to buy +

Excellent throughput and performance


Security software with lifetime updates


Multi-Gig input and port aggregation

Reasons to avoid -

Lacks advanced gaming features like geofencing and ping heat map

The Asus RT-AX86U is a Wi-Fi 6 powerhouse that delivers great speeds and killer gaming features, as well as awesome customization options. With high-end performance and lifetime protection against intrusions and malware, it's also a great option for securing your entire home network, providing long term protection without a subscription fee. It also comes with a two-year warranty.

But the real draw of the Asus RT-AX86U is the performance, which in their testing delivered 929.7 Mbps at 15 feet to provide speedy and effortless connectivity for all of their devices. With excellent range and great performance — even through walls and between floors — the RT-AX86U is equal parts general-use router and gaming router. Also, the collection of features and ports it offers are a steal compared to some of the top-performing gaming gear. If you want a great Wi-Fi 6 router for the whole household, the Asus RT-AX86U is it.

Read their full Asus RT-AX86U review. 

Best Wi-Fi router for range

Netgear Orbi Wi-Fi 6E (RBKE963) (Image credit: Netgear)

Insane performance at an insane price


Wi-Fi spec: Wi-Fi 6e/Quad-band

Number of antennas/removable: 12/No

Ports: 1 WAN/4 LAN (base unit), 4 LAN (satellites)

Measured peak throughput: 1.009 Gbps

Size: 11.1 x 7.5 x 3.0 inches

Reasons to buy +

Excellent mesh performance


Easy to set up and configure


Optional security software, parental controls

Reasons to avoid -

Costs $1,500 for router + 2 extenders


Just 90 days of free tech support

Netgear's Orbi WiFi 6E (model number RBKE963) is one of the best mesh Wi-Fi systems on the planet — and also one the most expensive. But if you have money to burn, a gigabit broadband connection from your ISP and an enormous house, then this is probably the mesh system for you. 

The Orbi WiFi 6E can cover up to 9,000 square feet but adding a third satellite can expand this up to 12,000 square feet. At a distance of 15 feet, the router's 6-GHz channel delivered throughput of more than a gigabit per second. 

Each unit has 12 antennas and four Ethernet ports (one rated at 2.5 Gbps), and the system creates channels on the 2.5, 5 and 6-Ghz bands, plus a fourth 5-Ghz one for backhaul between units. Netgear offers trial subscriptions to its Armor security software, which includes Bitdefender antivirus, and parental controls. You'll also have to pay for tech support after 90 days. However, if you can afford to pay for this mesh system, you won't mind. 

Read their full Netgear Orbi WiFi 6E (RBKE963) review.

Best value Wi-Fi router

TP-Link Archer AX6000

TP-Link Archer AX6000 (Image credit: TP-Link)

The best value-priced Wi-Fi 6 router


Wi-Fi Spec: Wi-Fi 6/Dual-band

Number of Antennas/Removable: 8/Yes

Ports: 1 WAN/8 LAN gigabit per second, USB 3, USB C

Peak Throughput: 884.4Mbps

Size: 10.3 x 10.3 x 2.4 inches

Reasons to buy +



8 LAN ports


Extra security built-in

Reasons to avoid -

Limited configuration options in app


Difficult to remove Ethernet cables

Wi-Fi 6 routers typically cost more, but value is the name of the game for the TP-Link Archer AX6000 router, their favorite budget-friendly Wi-Fi 6 router. It may lag on performance and range but it offers Wi-Fi 6 speeds for less than competing models. 

With eight wired networking ports and the ability to pair two together to create a 2Gbps stream of data, TP-Link’s Archer AX6000 leads the way for Wi-Fi 6 routers that are just as good with wired devices as they are at Wi-Fi. In their testing, it deliver speeds of 884 Mbps at 15 feet with a total range of 85 feet. By adding in router-based security, the Archer AX6000 stands alone as one of the best routers you can get, at a price that's hard to beat.

Read their full TP-Link Archer AX6000 review.

Best Wi-Fi router for gamers

Asus ROG Rapture GT-AX11000

Asus ROG Rapture GT-AX11000 (Image credit: Asus)

The best Wi-Fi 6 gaming router


Wi-Fi Spec: 802.11ac/Tri-Band

Number of Antennas/Removable: 8/Yes

Ports: 1 WAN, 4 1-Gbps LAN, 1 2.5-Gbps LAN, 2 USB 3.0

Peak Throughput: 731.4 Mbps

Size: 9.4 x 9.4 x 2.8 inches

Reasons to buy +

Performance improves with distance


Plenty of customization options


Impressive 2.5Gbps WAN port

Reasons to avoid -

Very large in size compared to other routers

The Asus ROG Rapture GT-AX11000 is perfect for gamers, with speeds that Boost over longer ranges, low latency and all the features that gamers expect. The GT-AX11000 is large though, with a gargantuan base, eight swiveling antennas, and massive 10.8Gbps maximum throughput. This wireless router has connectivity in droves, thanks to its tri-band design and four downstream Gigabit LAN ports, a single 2.5G Ethernet connection, and two USB 3.0 ports. In their testing, it managed to deliver 731 Mbps at 50 feet with a total range of 95 feet.

Built-in customization and gaming-oriented optimizations provide plenty of control, and you can even pair it with other Asus routers to build a mesh network to cover larger homes. At $450, it is expensive, but this is one of the best gaming routers for those that want an edge online.

Read their full Asus ROG Rapture GT-AX11000 review.

Best budget Wi-Fi router

Reyee RG-E5 on counter

(Image credit: Tom's Guide)

An affordable yet feature-packed Wi-Fi 6 router


Wi-Fi Spec: AX3200

Number of Antennas/Removable: 8/No

Ports: 1 WAN/4 LAN gigabit per second

Peak Throughput: 849.2Mbps (at 15 feet)

Size: 9.0 x 9.0 x 1.5 inches

Reasons to buy +

One-button mesh network


Excellent midrange performance and range


2-year warranty

Reasons to avoid -

Lacks extra security / WPA3 encryption


No USB port

The Reyee RG-E5 is a real bargain for a Wi-Fi 6 router that can cover 3,000 square feet. It can also become the center of a mesh network when paired with other Reyee gear and there's even a one-touch button to simplify the setup process. However, the Reyee RG-E5's budget price means this router lacks things like extra security software, port aggregation and a USB port for connecting storage devices to your network.

At its rear the Reyee RG-E5 has four gigabit Ethernet ports while the eight flipper antennas at the top of the device can be adjusted for a better signal. In their testing, the router was able to deliver 849.2 Mbps at 15 feet though it has a range of 100 feet. If you want to upgrade to Wi-Fi 6 without breaking the bank, this is the router to get.

Read their full Reyee RG-E5 review.

Best compact Wi-Fi router

Best Wi-Fi routers: Linksys EA8300 Max Stream

Linksys EA8300 Max Stream (Image credit: Linksys EA8300 Max Stream (Credit: Linksys))

A compact Wi-Fi router with plenty of power


Wi-Fi Spec: 802.11ac/Tri-Band

Number of Antennas/Removable: 6/No

Ports: 1 WAN, 4 1-Gbps LAN, 1 USB 3.0

Peak Throughput: 626.5 Mbps

Size: 8.5 x 6.4 x 2.2 inches

Reasons to buy +

Tri-band design with excellent performance


Good software and options


Compact design

For a truly customizable router, they recommend the Linksys EA8300 Max-Stream, which is not only a great tri-band router, it's also loaded with tools to tweak and customize your router for optimal performance. The small black EA8300 Max-Stream can move lots of data, though it will do best in smaller homes. For instance, in their testing, it had a range of 75 feet and delivered 626 Mbps at 15 feet.

Whether you're allocating bandwidth to prioritize gaming or media streaming, or just setting up parental controls, you can automate many features, make manual adjustments on the fly, and monitor it — all from your desktop or smartphone. With so many ways to customize your router’s performance, the Linksys EA8300 Max Stream is an easy pick for the power user.

Read their full Linksys EA8300 Max Stream review.

Is it time to update your Wi-Fi router?

Maybe you’ve noticed that your current Wi-Fi coverage feels slower than it used to, have been experiencing spotty reception, or maybe you just need something better equipped to handle the demands of the growing number of smart home devices at your house. If you’ve been dealing with any of these issues, a new router should be able to fix these common problems.

It’s also worth upgrading to a new Wi-Fi router if you’re still using older hardware. If you have an old Wireless-N or Wireless-AC (retroactively renamed Wi-Fi 4 and Wi-Fi 5 respectively) router in your home, you should definitely consider upgrading to something more current. Newer standards will not only provide faster connectivity but there are other benefits as well. For instance, your smartphone battery will last longer as a result of more efficient device management and your connected home gadgets will all feel much faster with these more capable standards.

The other big reason to upgrade your router is that you’re tired of paying a monthly rental fee for a router from your ISP. Since average equipment rental fees cost anywhere from $10-15 each mount, a new router can pay for itself in just a short amount of time while providing you with better service and features. Just don’t forget to pair it with one of the best cable modems if you want to entirely free yourself from the extra costs that often come with broadband internet packages. 

How to choose the best Wi-Fi router for you?

When it comes to choosing the best wireless router for your home or small business, it’s easy to get lost in the complex networking jargon and obscure technology standards. However, all you really need to know is how to answer two key questions: What speed do you need for your internet connection? And what sort of coverage do you need?

Speeds and standards: The internet speed you need for your router is determined by the speed you get from your internet service provider as well as the speeds supported by your modem. For most people, a standard 802.11ac router will handle all but the highest performing plans, like Gigabit internet plans that aren’t available everywhere just yet. With average broadband speeds at around 100 Mbps, most wireless AC routers will be able to handle the job with ease.

The latest technology for routers is called Wi-Fi 6 (aka 802.11ax) which is a faster standard that’s better suited for households with a lot of smart home devices. There are many Wi-Fi 6 routers available today, though there’s an even newer twist on this standard called Wi-Fi 6e that takes advantage of a newly opened part of the radio spectrum.

Wi-Fi 6e-enabled devices, such as laptops and smartphones, are still few and far between. Unless you’re using a dozen devices at once, you likely won’t see much benefit from upgrading to Wi-Fi 6e at this time. See their article What is Wi-Fi 6E: Routers, devices and how it's better than Wi-Fi 6 to learn more. 

Coverage range: The other part of the wireless equation is coverage area. A basic standalone router will generally offer 50 to 100 feet of range, so that it can easily cover the majority of apartments and smaller homes. If you have a house with 3,000 square feet or more of space, you’ll want to consider a mesh router instead which use multiple devices to provide a strong Wi-Fi signal throughout larger homes. These are especially helpful in multistory houses or in homes with dead spots where the Wi-Fi signal drops out.

The rear ports of the MSI RadiX AXE6600

(Image credit: Future)

Ports: Though wireless connectivity is the main thing you want from a Wi-Fi router, you’ll also want to think about wired connections. Ethernet offers faster connectivity for devices like game consoles and smart TVs that use more bandwidth and USB ports are handy for connecting older printers or storage to your network.

Input is another issue, especially if you live in an area where Gigabit internet is available. With a Gigabit connection, an older router can be a bottleneck, slowing down your entire home. Some routers can even aggregate two inputs for even faster connectivity.

Price range: Current 802.11 ac routers often sell for less than $100 for basic, dual-band models. More expensive modems range up to $300 but offer better coverage and faster speeds, while gaming routers have built-in optimization features and typically sell for more. New routers using the Wi-Fi 6 standard (previously known as 802.11 ax) often cost $400 or more.

Keeping up on everything happening in the networking world can be difficult, so check out their helpful guides on the latest technology, like What is a mesh Wi-Fi router, and do you need one?  Or get the latest advice on how to fix your router's security problems, from simple steps to advanced protections. From router security to in-depth explanations of Wi-Fi 6 and Wi-Fi 6e, we're always providing the latest info about the latest products and innovations. 

How they test the best Wi-Fi routers

A picture of the MSI RadiX AXE6600 next to a Pixel 6a running a speed test

(Image credit: Future)

We test every router they review to measure performance and range, in addition to hands-on use to evaluate the ease-of-setup and quality of settings and features.

Throughput describes how much data the router can move back and forth over its wireless connection. Higher throughput will serve you better in data-heavy uses, like streaming video, gaming, or connecting multiple users at once.

We measure throughput using IXChariot, first at a 5-foot distance without obstructions, so that they can gauge the maximum amount of data that the router can move. They then measure how much data the router can move at 50, 75 and 100 feet, so that you can also choose the best model for smaller homes and apartments, where short-range performance may be the priority.

We also test performance through walls and ceilings, to determine how well a router can provide signal in the Wi-Fi-dampening conditions common to many buildings and homes.

For mesh routers, they perform additional testing to determine how well the mesh system does sending a signal through both the main router and through a satellite unit.

Following out throughput tests, they also put the router through real-world tests by connecting a number of devices — laptops, TVs, smartphones, and tablets — and stream a number of games, TV shows and movies simultaneously to see how well the router performs under strain.

For more information on how they test networking devices, check out their guide on how they test Wi-Fi routers along with their more general how they test page for Tom's Guide.

Check out all of their home networking coverage:

Best mesh routers | Best Wi-Fi 6 routers |  Best gaming routers |  Best Wi-Fi extenders | Best powerline extenders | Best cable modems  

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug