Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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The Turing Test: What Is It, What Can Pass It, and Limitations

What Is the Turing Test?

The Turing Test is a deceptively simple method of determining whether a machine can demonstrate human intelligence: If a machine can engage in a conversation with a human without being detected as a machine, it has demonstrated human intelligence.

The Turing Test was proposed in a paper published in 1950 by mathematician and computing pioneer Alan Turing. It has become a fundamental motivator in the theory and development of artificial Intelligence (AI).

Key Takeaways
  • The Turing Test measures the intelligence of a test subject to determine whether a machine can demonstrate intelligence.
  • According to the test, a computer program can think if its responses can fool a human into believing it, too, is human.
  • Not everyone accepts the validity of the Turing Test, but passing it remains a major challenge to developers of artificial intelligence.
  • There are variations to the Turing test as well as modifications to the approach of asking questions in different AI tests.
  • The Turing test has several limitations including requiring a controlled environment, not having a dedicated definition of intelligence, and needing to adapt to evolving technological advancements.
  • Understanding the Turing Test

    Rapid advances in computing are now visible in many aspects of their lives. They have programs that translate one language to another in the blink of an eye, robots that clean an entire home in minutes, finance robots that create personalized retirement portfolios, and wearable devices that track their health and fitness levels.

    At the forefront of disruptive technology is the development of artificial intelligence and what limitations computer can experience. For this reason, the Turing test was designed to evaluate whether a computer could be "smart" enough to be mistaken for a human. Critics of the Turing Test argue that a computer can be built that has the ability to think, but not to have a mind of its own. They believe that the complexity of the human thought process cannot be coded.

    The test is conducted in an interrogation room run by a judge. The test subjects, a person and a computer program, are hidden from view. The judge has a conversation with both parties and attempts to identify which is the human and which is the computer, based on the quality of their conversation. Turing concludes that if the judge can't tell the difference, the computer has succeeded in demonstrating human intelligence. That is, it can think.

    History of the Turing Test

    Alan Turing developed some of the basic concepts of computer science while searching for a more efficient method of breaking coded German messages during World War II. After the war, he began thinking about artificial intelligence. In his 1950 paper, Turing began by posing the question, “Can machines think?” He then proposed a test that is meant to help humans answer the question.

    Several early computers hold early claims to have the ability to have fooled humans in very basic situations. In 1966, Joseph Weizenbaum created ELIZA, a machine that took specific words and transformed the words into full sentences. ELIZA was one of the earliest computers to have fooled human tester into thinking it was human.

    Less than a decade later, a chatbot named PARRY was modeled to imitate the behavior of a paranoid schizophrenic. A group of psychiatrists were asked to analyze conversations with real patients and PARRY conversations. When asked to identify which transcripts were computer programs, the group was only able to identify the machine 48% of the time. Critics of both ELIZA and PARRY state the the full rules of the Turing test were not met and do not indicate full machine intelligence.

    A chatbot named Eugene Goostman is accepted by some as the first to pass the Turing Test, in 2014.

    The Turing Test Today

    The Turing Test has its detractors, but it remains a measure of the success of artificial intelligence projects. An updated version of the Turing Test has more than one human judge interrogating and chatting with both subjects. The project is considered a success if more than 30% of the judges, after five minutes of conversation, conclude that the computer is a human.

    The Loebner Prize is an annual Turing Test competition that was launched in 1991 by Hugh Loebner, an American inventor and activist. Loebner created additional rules requiring the human and the computer program to have 25-minute conversations with each of four judges. The winner is the computer whose program receives the most votes and the highest ranking from the judges.

    In 2014, Kevin Warwick of the University of practicing organized a Turing Test competition to mark the 60th anniversary of Alan Turing’s death. A computer chatbot called Eugene Goostman, who had the persona of a 13-year-old boy, technically passing the Turing Test in that event. He secured the votes of 33% of the judges who were convinced that he was human.

    In 2018, Google Duplex revealed the capability to performing tasks via the telephone. In various demonstrations, Duplex schedule a hair appointment as well as called a restaurant, with the human on the other end of the line not realizing they were interacting with a machine. However, critics point out that the interaction does not conform to the genuine Turing test and claim the test has still yet to be beaten by a machine.

    Turing Test Versions

    There are several variations of Turing tests, all with the same intention of detecting whether a respondent is a human or a machine. Each variation takes a different approach in asking the respondent different questions and evaluating the responses.

    Imitation Game

    One of the earlier applications of the Turing test, the imitation game version often utilizes three parties. The first person was a male, the second person was a female, and the third person was responsible for determining the gender of the first two people. The first person is often tasked with trying to trick the third person, while the second person is often tasked with trying to help the third person correctly identify each gender.

    Future iterations of the imitation game have evolved into both parties attempting to trick the third person into incorrectly identifying the genders. In any case, the objective of the imitation game is to determine whether an interrogator can be fooled.

    Standard Interpretation

    Another commonly version of the Turing test does not strive to see whether a computer can be fooled but rather to see whether a computer can imitate a human. In the standard interpretation variation of a Turing test, the first person is a computer and the second person is a human of either sex.

    In this variation, the third person attempts to discover which of the first two people is a human and which is a computer. The interrogator is not the subject being tested; instead, it is the computer that is trying to fool the human (as opposed to the opposite direction under the imitation game). For example, it may be asked a series of personal finance questions to determine whether or not its responses are reasonably expected regarding behavioral finance.

    The fictitious Voight-Kampff in the science fiction dystopian series Blade Runner is a play on the idea of testing a machine for its intelligence behavior.

    Modern Approaches to the Turing Test

    Since the creation of the Turing test, more modern approaches have evolved in an attempt to better detect humans and machines. These variations of the Turing test are continually evolving to maintain relevance during technological advancements.

  • The Reverse Turing Test aims to have a human trick a computer into having the computer believe it is not interrogating a human.
  • The Total Turing Test incorporates perceptual abilities and the person being question's ability to manipulate objects.
  • The Marcus Test has test subjects view media and respond to questions about the content consumed.
  • The Lovelace Test 2.0 has test subjects create art and examines their ability to do so.
  • The Minimum Intelligent Signal test asks test subjects only binary questions (i.e. only true/false or yes/no answers are allowed).
  • Limitations of the Turing Test

    There are many critics of the Turing test, and the variations above attempt to mitigate some of the limitations of the original Turing test. Still, it is important to be mindful of the downsides of the Turing test and where its analysis may fall short.

  • The Turing test requires a very controlled environment to be performed. Test participants must be hidden from view of each other during the entirety of the test, though the parties must have a reliable means of communication.
  • The Turing test may not be suitable to test for intelligence as different computing systems are structured differently. Therefore, there may be inherent, natural limits to what a computer is capable of performing.
  • The Turing test is evolving; however, technological advancements are evolving even faster. Consider Moore's Law which states the rapid growth of processing ability with the rapid decline in cost. As computer gain more capabilities, historical testing methods may no longer be suitable as computers gain more human-like capabilities.
  • The Turing test assesses intelligence, though it may not be an appropriate gauge of all types of intelligence. For example, a computer may successfully fool an interrogator based on its ability to process responses similarly as a human. However, this may not truly indicate emotional intelligence or awareness; it may simply mean the computer had a highly relevant and competent set of code.
  • How Does a Turing Test Work?

    A Turing test works with an interrogator asking a test subject a series of questions. Each party is kept in a separate area, so no physical contact is allowed. The responses given by the test subject are evaluated based on whether answers can discriminate between whether a human subject would supply the response or not.

    Has Any Machine Passed the Turing Test?

    In 2018, Google Duplex was introduced at the annual Google I/O Annual Developer Conference. The machine scheduled a hair salon appointment and interacted with a hair salon assistant via the phone as part of the conversation. Though some critics view the outcome differently, some believe Google Duplex passed the Turing test.

    Can a Human Fail the Turing Test?

    Yes. Although a Turing test is based on knowledge and intelligence, it is also about evaluating how responses are given and whether the answers are interpreted to be sneaky.

    For example, imagine being asked to provide the sum of 43,219 and 87,878. Whether or not you can provide the correct answer is only part of the exam; the Turing test evaluates how long it takes you provide an answer, any clarifying questions you ask in response, or whether you comprehend to add and not subject the two figures. Based on any human's responses, it is possible to be mistaken for a computer (i.e. if you accidently subtracted instead of added the figures, that may be incriminating evidence).

    What Are Examples of Turing Test Questions?

    An interesting example of a potential Turing test question may be based around language and the play on words. For example, a question may ask "what is the different being time flying and an airplane flying?". Though this type of question may be unfair for participants not familiar with the English language, it is also an example of being able to make logical distinctions where a single instance (i.e. the word fly) may mean different things in different contexts.

    Another example of a Turing test question is often nonsensical questions. Questions such as "Is the difference between football that the batter wears a helmet?" is grammatically incorrect and easily detectible by a human as not making any sense. However, a machine may still try to parse a response.

    The Bottom Line

    The Turing test is an exam to determine whether a machine is able to exhibit the same intelligence as a human. There are now many variations of the Turing test, and as technology continues to advance with AI at the forefront, new lines of thinking are emerging with regard to means of determining intelligence and a lot of nuances are resulting from that thinking as well, which requires more work to be done in this area.

    Placement Test Practice

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    Being prepared is the best way to ease the stress of test taking. If you are having difficulty scheduling your Placement Test, please contact the UNG Testing Office.

  • Practice, practice, practice before your scheduled Placement Test. 
  • If you have a physical or learning disability, contact Disability Services promptly to discuss whether or not you are eligible for accommodations at UNG for your Placement Test.
  • The night before your Placement Test, get a good night’s sleep. This is not an ideal time to stay out late with friends. Take a rain check on that.
  • Make certain you eat something nutritious before your test. Your brain cannot work on low fuel. Also make certain you are hydrated. Good choices are fruit, yogurt, almonds, or peanut butter crackers and water.
  • Make certain you have directions to the test site and that you allow sufficient time to get lost at least once, search for a parking space, use the restroom, check in with the testing administrator, and take some calming breaths before the test begins.
  • The testing environment tends to be a little cool, so please bring a sweater with you, just in case. Scratch paper and pencils are provided by the testing administrator. You will not be permitted to use an outside calculator or your cell phone in the testing center; lockers are provided to secure your personal items.
  • If you are required to take more than one subject area test, the order in which they are administered is: Writing 1st (if required); practicing 2nd (if required); and Math 3rd (if required). All of this is completed on a computer in one session.
  • Please read all test directions carefully. They often see students scoring low on the Placement Test simply because they rush through the directions and then don’t fully understand or follow them. The directions for each test are different, so take the time to read through each set of instructions.
  • The Placement Tests are not timed (with the exception of the WritePlacer). Please do not be concerned if other students are finishing before you. They may not be required to take the same number of tests as you. They also may have a different set of math problems or different practicing passages than you. Nobody is your pace car and this isn’t a race to the finish line.
  • Upon receiving an Admissions decision on your Check Application Status site, please contact Dede deLaughter (by email or by phone at 706-310-6207)with any questions you may have about your test results and/or any retesting options.
  • If you do place into Learning Support, please understand that this is not punitive but, rather, in your best interest. UNG strives to support you in achieving your academic goals, and that includes starting you in the appropriate level of instruction that sets you up for academic success.
  • If you have a red yes in any Placement Test Required row on your Check Application Status page in Banner, read the information below relating to the area in which you have the red yes.

  • Don’t rush. You will have one hour to write your essay. Your essay will be evaluated on organization, focus, development and support, sentence structure, and mechanical conventions.
  • Use the provided scratch paper to do your brainstorming.
  • Using your brainstorming ideas, write your essay.
  • Proofreading tips:
  • Make sure your essay actually answers the prompt.
  • If you used examples, make certain they are clear and concise.
  • Avoid using impressive-sounding vocabulary unless you are absolutely certain you are using those words correctly.
  • Re-read every paragraph carefully. You know what you meant to say. Will the reader know what you meant to say?
  • Re-read your entire essay from the bottom to the top, one sentence at a time. This is a good way to catch grammar errors, like sentence fragments, subject-verb agreement errors, punctuation errors, and the like.
  • Be sure to review the information in the preparation modules before and between practice questions to Excellerate your score!
  • Visit the free Longsdale Publishing Accuplacer practice site. Then click on the Register NEW Account button. Look on your Check Application Status page for the School Number and School Key. After you register, you will be issued a username and password. SAVE this information for future log-in access!
  • Select the Quantitative Reasoning, Algebra, and Statistics (QRAS) test.
  • Be sure to review the information in the preparation modules before and between practice questions to Excellerate your score!
  • Schedule Your Accuplacer Test

    Look on your Check Application Status page for the link or contact UNG Testing. If you need assistance or wish to opt out of Accuplacer testing, please email learningsupport@ung.edu.

    Test Taking Tips
  • Take your time. Answering the math problems as accurately as possible could save you time and money in the future if you are not required to take an extra math class.
  • Check your answers. Remember, in a multiple choice test, there are usually at least two wrong answers that are based on the most common miscalculations or process errors.
  • Calculators and scrap paper. Certain placement test problems will allow you to use the built-in calculator. If not, use the scratch paper that will be provided. (This scratch paper will be collected before you leave the test, so don’t make your to-do list on it.)
  • Visit the free Longsdale Publishing Accuplacer practice site. To set up your free account, first obtain the UNG School Number and School Key by emailing learningsupport@ung.edu - preferably from your UNG email account, providing your student ID (900) number. Then click on the Register New Account button. After you register, you will be issued a username and password. Save this information for future log-in access!
  • Select the appropriate Eligibility Exam: QRAS if you are attempting eligibility to take College Algebra, MATH 1111; Advanced Algebra and Functions if you are eligible to take MATH 1111 and are attempting eligibility to take Pre-calculus, MATH 1113, Brief Calculus, MATH 2040, or Calculus I, MATH 1450.
  • Be sure to review the information in the preparation modules before and between practice questions to Excellerate your score!
  • Schedule Your Accuplacer Test

    Scheduling information is located on the Math Eligibility Exams page.

    Test Taking Tips
  • Take your time. The test is not timed.
  • Check your answers. Remember, in a multiple choice test, there are usually at least two wrong answers that are based on the most common miscalculations or process errors.
  • Calculators and scrap paper: certain placement test problems will allow you to use the built-in calculator. If not, use the scratch paper that will be provided. (This scratch paper will be collected before you leave the test, so don’t make your to-do list on it.)
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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug