Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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VMware causes Blue Screen on Windows 11/10

If VMware is causing a Blue Screen error on Windows 11/10, the following tips could be handy for you. There are different reasons why your host computer fails to load the VMware virtual machine. This article explains some of the most common causes and solutions to mitigate this issue within moments.

VMware causes blue screen on Windows 11/10

If VMware causes a Blue Screen on Windows 11/10, follow these steps:

  • Update VMware
  • Low computer resource
  • Turn off Hyper-V
  • Disable other virtual machines
  • Corrupt ISO file
  • To know more about these steps, continue reading.

    1] Update VMware

    It is probably the very first thing you need to check. There could be times when VMware might fail to make your virtual machine up and running due to a glitch or bug. If you have recently updated your VMware app, it might come with a bug that could cause the aforementioned issue.

    In most cases, companies recognize the bug and roll out an update almost immediately. If the same thing happens with your VMware installation, chances are they have already released an update. That is why it is recommended to check the official statement and install the update if anything has been released.

    2] Low computer resource

    Although the official statement says something about the 1.3GHz processor and 2GB of RAM, you might not be able to run a virtual machine smoothly or at all, having such resources. It is always recommended to configure much better hardware than the mentioned one.

    If you have an old x64 architecture, you might not be able to run VMware virtual machines. In other words, there is a high chance of getting the blue screen error on the host computer while running the virtual OS. That is why it is recommended to have a better hardware configuration to bypass the BSOD

    Pro tip: You can open Task Manager alongside VMware to check which app is consuming more RAM and other resources. Then, you can close such unnecessary apps to assign more CPU resources to VMware.

    3] Turn off Hyper-V

    Fix VirtualBox Installer Installation failed error

    Hyper-V is a Level 1 hypervisor that makes the host computer into a virtual PC. On the other hand, VMware is a Level 2 hypervisor that uses the host computer to build the virtual machine. That is why if you enabled Hyper-V earlier, you might not be able to use VMware or VirtualBox-like virtual machine apps simultaneously. You must disable either of them. In other words, if you want to use VMware, you need to disable Hyper-V.

    To disable Hyper-V in Windows 11/10, do the following:

  • Click on the Taskbar search box.
  • Search for windows features.
  • Click on the individual search result.
  • Remove the tick from the Hyper-V checkbox.
  • Click the OK button.
  • Let it finish all the processes.
  • Restart your computer.
  • Once done, you will be able to use VMware without any BSOD.

    4] Disable other virtual machines

    Many people often use multiple virtual machine apps, such as VirtualBox, VMware, etc., simultaneously. In most situations, such workflow might cause a blue screen error on your computer. That is why it is recommended to disable other virtual machine software. For that purpose, you can take the help of the Task Manager to terminate all the dependencies.

    5] obtain ISO file again

    If VMware causes a blue screen while installing the virtual machine OS, it is suggested to obtain the ISO file again. If the ISO comes with some corrupt files, there is a chance of getting BSOD while using that ISO in the virtual machine. You can follow this guide to download Windows 11/10 ISO directly.

    Read: How to fix VMware Internal Error while powering on

    Can VMware cause BSOD?

    Yes, VMware can cause BSOD on Windows 11/10 PC. As said earlier, there could be countless reasons why you might get a blue screen error due to having VMware on your computer. For your information, some common reasons are mentioned in this article, and it is recommended to follow them to get rid of this issue.

    Is VMware compatible with Windows 11?

    Yes, VMware is compatible with Windows 11. If you have successfully installed Windows 11 without compromising the official system requirements, you can easily install VMware on your computer. As per the official statement, VMware requires a minimum of 2GB RAM along with 1.3GHz clock speed. On the other hand, it runs on almost all the x64 architecture without any problem.

    Read: VMware does not support the user level monitor of this host.

    VMware causes blue screen on Windows 11/10

    CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2023-2024 PDFs with Important Study Resources

    CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2023-24: Central Board of Secondary Education  (CBSE) has released the 12th class Syllabus for the senior secondary students in the 2023-24 batch. Now, students who are entering the new academic year can refer to the latest syllabus and curriculum to know the details regarding complete course structure, course contents, any addition or removal of Topics from the curriculum, question paper design, typology of questions, project work details and unit-wise weightage of marks.

    Syllabus plays a key role in ensuring that students are on the right path of preparation as it equips students with sufficient information related to course details, chapters, Topics to be studied, and more. Every year a revised syllabus is presented by the board authorities after certain updations and deletions. Check the latest syllabus from the links provided to you here. 

    CBSE Syllabus 2023-24 Class 12

    With CBSE Board releasing the 2023-24 curriculum early on in the academic year, students and teachers will have ample amount of time to prepare themselves thoroughly for the annual board exams of the upcoming session. CBSE curriculum forms the base of education for lakhs and lakhs of Indian students. Therefore, it is created in such a way as to showcase India's shared vision of education encompassing local, national and global needs and expectations. It is designed with the vision to provide opportunities for students to achieve excellence in learning as prescribed in the NEP, also known as, National Education Policy-2020.

    Also Check: CBSE Class 12 DELETED Syllabus 2023-24 PDF Download: Check The Subject-wise List of Topics NOT to Study for CBSE Board exam 2024

    CBSE Syllabus 2023-2024: Class 12 (All Subjects) 

    You can obtain the CBSE Class 12 Syllabus PDFs of all subejcts by clicking on the links in the table given below:

    Also check below the syllabus for language subjects:

    CBSE curriculum for class 12 encompasses 7 major learning areas: Languages, Humanities, Mathematics, Sciences, Skill Subjects, General Studies and Health and Physical Education. Based on their division, they have provided the syllabus of all subjects in the tables given above.

    Important Study Material for CBSE Class 12 Board exam 2024

    Also Read:


    Broadcom ends VMware perpetual license sales, testing customers and partners

    The logo of American cloud computing and virtualization technology company VMware is seen at the Mobile World Congress (MWC), the telecom industry's biggest annual gathering, in Barcelona on March 2, 2023. Enlarge Getty reader comments 210

    Broadcom has moved forward with plans to transition VMware, a virtualization and cloud computing company, into a subscription-based business. As of December 11, it no longer sells perpetual licenses with VMware products. VMware, whose $61 billion acquisition by Broadcom closed in November, also announced on Monday that it will no longer sell support and subscription (SnS) for VMware products with perpetual licenses. Moving forward, VMware will only offer term licenses or subscriptions, according to its VMware blog post.

    VMware customers with perpetual licenses and active support contracts can continue using them. VMware "will continue to provide support as defined in contractual commitments," Krish Prasad, senior vice president and general manager for VMware's Cloud Foundation Division, wrote. But when customers' SnS terms end, they won't have any support.

    Broadcom hopes this will force customers into subscriptions, and it's offering "upgrade pricing incentives" that weren't detailed in the blog for customers who switch from perpetual licensing to a subscription.

    These are the products affected, per Prasad's blog:

  • VMware Aria Automation
  • VMware Aria Suite
  • VMware Aria Operations
  • VMware Aria Operations for Logs
  • VMware Aria Operations for Networks
  • VMware Aria Universal
  • VMware Cloud Foundation
  • VMware HCX
  • VMware NSX
  • VMware Site Recovery Manager
  • VMware vCloud Suite
  • VMware vSAN
  • VMware vSphere
  • Subscription-based future

    Broadcom is looking to grow VMware's EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization) from about $4.7 billion to about $8.5 billion in three years, largely through shifting the company's business model to subscriptions, Tom Krause, president of the Broadcom Software Group, said during a December 7 earnings call, per Forbes.

    "This shift is the natural next step in their multi-year strategy to make it easier for customers to consume both their existing offerings and new innovations. VMware believes that a subscription model supports their customers with the innovation and flexibility they need as they undertake their digital transformations," VMware's blog said.

    With changes effective immediately upon announcement, the news might sound abrupt. However, in May, soon after announcing its plans to acquire VMware, Broadcom CEO Hock Tan signaled a “rapid transition” to subscriptions.

    Advertisement

    At the time, Tan pointed to the importance of maintaining current VMware customers' happiness, as well as leveraging the VMware sales team already in place. However, after less than a month of the deal's close, reports point to concern among VMWare customers and partners.

    Customer and partner concerns

    VMware's blog said "the industry has already embraced subscription as the standard for cloud consumption." For years, software and even hardware vendors and investors have been pushing IT solution provider partners and customers toward recurring revenue models. However, VMware built much of its business on the perpetual license model. As noted by The Stack, VMware in February noted that perpetual licensing was the company's "most renowned model."

    VMware's blog this week listed "continuous innovation" and "faster time to value" as customer benefits for subscription models but didn't detail how it came to those conclusions.

    "Predictable investments" is also listed, but it's hard to imagine a more predictable expense than paying for something once and having supported access to it indefinitely (assuming you continue paying any support costs). Now, VMware and its partners will be left convincing customers that their finances can afford a new monthly expense for something they thought was paid for. For Broadcom, though, it's easier to see the benefits of turning VMware into more of a reliable and recurring revenue stream.

    Additionally, Broadcom's layoffs of at least 2,837 VMware employees have brought uncertainty to the VMware brand. A CRN report in late November pointed to VMware partners hearing customer concern about potential price raises and a lack of support. C.R. Howdyshell, CEO of Advizex, which reportedly made $30 million in VMware-tied revenue in 2022, told the publication that partners and customers were experiencing "significant concern and chaos” around VMware sales. Another channel partner noted to CRN the layoff of a close VMware sales contact.

    But Broadcom has made it clear that it wants to "complete the transition of all VMware by Broadcom solutions to subscription licenses," per Prasad's blog.

    The company hopes to convince skeptical channel partners that they'll see the way, too. VMware, like many tech companies urging subscription models, pointed to "many partners" having success with subscription models already and "opportunity for partners to engage more strategically with customers and deliver higher-value services that drive customer success."

    However, because there's no immediate customer benefit to the end of perpetual licenses, those impacted by VMware's change in business strategy have to assess how much they're willing to pay to access VMware products moving forward.


     


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug