Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 300-215
Exam Name : Conducting Forensic Analysis and Incident Response Using Cisco CyberOps Technologies (CBRFIR)
Vendor Name : Cisco
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300-215 test Format | 300-215 Course Contents | 300-215 Course Outline | 300-215 test Syllabus | 300-215 test Objectives


Exam Number: 300-215
Exam Name : Conducting Forensic Analysis and Incident Response Using Cisco CyberOps Technologies (CBRFIR)
Exam Duration : 90 min.
Number of Questions: 60

Exam Description
Conducting Forensic Analysis and Incident Response Using Cisco Technologies for CyberOps v1.0 (CBRFIR 300-215) is a 90-minute test that is associated with the Cisco CyberOps Professional Certification. This test tests a candidate's knowledge of forensic analysis and incident response fundamentals, techniques, and processes. The course Conducting Forensic Analysis and Incident Response Using Cisco Technologies for CyberOps helps candidates to prepare for this exam.

Course Outline
20% 1.0 Fundamentals
1.1 Analyze the components needed for a root cause analysis report
1.2 Describe the process of performing forensics analysis of infrastructure network devices
1.3 Describe antiforensic tactics, techniques, and procedures
1.4 Recognize encoding and obfuscation techniques (such as, base 64 and hex encoding)
1.5 Describe the use and characteristics of YARA rules (basics) for malware identification, classification, and documentation
1.6 Describe the role of:
1.6.a hex editors (HxD, Hiew, and Hexfiend) in DFIR investigations
1.6.b disassemblers and debuggers (such as, Ghidra, Radare, and Evans Debugger) to perform basic malware analysis
1.6.c deobfuscation tools (such as, XORBruteForces, xortool, and unpacker)
1.7 Describe the issues related to gathering evidence from virtualized environments (major cloud vendors)
20% 2.0 Forensics Techniques
2.1 Recognize the methods identified in the MITRE attack framework to perform fileless malware analysis
2.2 Determine the files needed and their location on the host
2.3 Evaluate output(s) to identify IOC on a host
2.3.a process analysis
2.3.b log analysis
2.4 Determine the type of code based on a provided snippet
2.5 Construct Python, PowerShell, and Bash scripts to parse and search logs or multiple data sources (such as, Cisco Umbrella, Sourcefire IPS, AMP for Endpoints, AMP for Network, and PX Grid)
2.6 Recognize purpose, use, and functionality of libraries and tools (such as, Volatility, Systernals, SIFT tools, and TCPdump)
30% 3.0 Incident Response Techniques
3.1 Interpret alert logs (such as, IDS/IPS and syslogs)
3.2 Determine data to correlate based on incident type (host-based and network-based activities)
3.3 Determine attack vectors or attack surface and recommend mitigation in a given scenario
3.4 Recommend actions based on post-incident analysis
3.5 Recommend mitigation techniques for evaluated alerts from firewalls, intrusion prevention systems (IPS), data analysis tools (such as, Cisco Umbrella Investigate, Cisco Stealthwatch, and Cisco SecureX), and other systems to responds to cyber incidents
3.6 Recommend a response to 0 day exploitations (vulnerability management)
3.7 Recommend a response based on intelligence artifacts
3.8 Recommend the Cisco security solution for detection and prevention, given a scenario
3.9 Interpret threat intelligence data to determine IOC and IOA (internal and external sources)
3.10 Evaluate artifacts from threat intelligence to determine the threat actor profile
3.11 Describe capabilities of Cisco security solutions related to threat intelligence (such as, Cisco Umbrella, Sourcefire IPS, AMP for Endpoints, and AMP for Network)
15% 4.0 Forensics Processes
4.1 Describe antiforensic techniques (such as, debugging, Geo location, and obfuscation)
4.2 Analyze logs from modern web applications and servers (Apache and NGINX)
4.3 Analyze network traffic associated with malicious activities using network monitoring tools (such as, NetFlow and display filtering in Wireshark)
4.4 Recommend next step(s) in the process of evaluating files based on distinguished characteristics of files in a given scenario
4.5 Interpret binaries using objdump and other CLI tools (such as, Linux, Python, and Bash)
15% 5.0 Incident Response Processes
5.1 Describe the goals of incident response
5.2 Evaluate elements required in an incident response playbook
5.3 Evaluate the relevant components from the ThreatGrid report
5.4 Recommend next step(s) in the process of evaluating files from endpoints and performing ad-hoc scans in a given scenario
5.5 Analyze threat intelligence provided in different formats (such as, STIX and TAXII)



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug