Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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10 Cisco Moves Solution Providers Should Watch Closely

Spotlight On Cisco

Cisco made headlines earlier this year with a pledge to remove $1 billion in expenses by the end of its fiscal 2012, and that's just one of the big moves Cisco's made in a year of big-ticket product launches, curious statements from John Chambers, its chairman and CEO, a series of major investments in the Cisco channel, and a downsizing that's supposedly going to leave Cisco slimmer and easier to do business with.

With so much hype and so many headlines, sorting all of the things Cisco partners should focus on can take a little time. Here they sift through the craziness to bring you 10 particular Cisco moves, trends or possibilities to focus on.

This Cisco Partner-Led Thing

Perhaps the biggest story for Cisco partners this year is a strategy called partner-led, which will theoretically means more sales of Cisco products to midmarket and SMB customers through partners, and also means a $75 million investment in new channel resources from Cisco. The groundwork's been laid for Cisco to grow as a midmarket and SMB channel vendor and to minimize channel conflict in more than $7 billion in accounts where partners should rule the day. Whether Cisco can truly execute on all these promises and investments is the big question, but partners haven't been this optimistic about Cisco as a channel force for some time.

Power Of PRM

The Cisco partner-led strategy has several interesting facets, including access to Cisco's Technology Solutions Network (TSN) for engineering assistance, and further funding for Fast Track 2, which streamlines transactional sales in the SMB segment. But the move that has several Cisco partner tongues wagging is the pending launch of a partner relationship management (PRM) system, that will let Cisco do things like send targeted marketing messages to certain partner executives, as well as share data on partner-led deals in various stages of Cisco approval. Among the particular tools Cisco's trotting out in an effort to make things simpler, VARs see the PRM system, part of a resource called Partner 360, as the clearest example.

No-Wait Deal Approval

Several Cisco executives have said that because of many of the new systems Cisco's put in place, the time needed to approve deals and also approve partner rewards such as qualification for the Opportunity Incentive Program (OIP) has improved dramatically. Gary Moore (pictured), Cisco's executive vice president and chief operating officer, told attendees at Cisco's recent Financial Analyst Conference that Cisco has seen an overall 70 percent reduction in the amount of time it takes Cisco managers to review deals. And Edison Peres, senior vice president, worldwide channels, told CRN that there's now an operations team in place within Cisco to approve OIP deals less than $50,000 in a matter of hours, not days.

A lot of encouraging talk from Cisco, but will partners see these sped-up approvals come to pass?

Broader Marketing Spend

Luanne Tierney was one of the more influential executives in Cisco's Worldwide Partner Organization, so when she jumped ship for Juniper earlier this year, Cisco partners wondered whether Cisco would keep its unique partner marketing programs humming with the same intensity. Turns out, there will be more intensity: Amanda Jobbins (pictured), now Cisco's vice president, worldwide partner marketing, has a role much expanded from Tierney's, and reports directly to Blair Christie, Cisco's chief marketing and communications officer, to promote closer alignment with Cisco's corporate marketing and channel marketing spend.

Partners await word from Jobbins on how many of the marketing programs Tierney and her team put in place will continue and expand. Cisco, for example, hasn't yet said whether it will host a Cisco Partner Velocity conference this year, and top Cisco partners tell CRN that no decision has been communicated to the channel.

What Chuck Robbins Says

No one Cisco executive -- except for, say, Chambers -- should hold more sway than any other when it takes that monster executive team to keep Cisco's channel, sales, marketing and other organizations running. Still, thanks to Cisco's corporate restructuring, it now has three single executives responsible for each of its three consolidated geographies. Chuck Robbins (pictured), well-known to Cisco partners, is now senior vice president of Americas, in charge of all Americas sales and all of the heads of Cisco's sales theaters within the Americas. Jim Sherriff, head of Cisco's Americas sales channels, reports directly to Robbins now.

"As much as the channel leaders still own the program, Chuck is clearly in charge," said a top Cisco partner. "Any major sales strategy decision in channel or within Cisco, for the U.S. and the Americas, is coming from him and we're listening to him for that perspective."

Tighter Alignment With Services

One of the channel's most highly regarded services programs is going to get even more partner-friendly, according to Nick Earle, Cisco's senior vice president, worldwide services sales and channels. For starters, said Earle, Cisco will soon publish a document outlining the rules of engagement for Cisco services sales -- an actual guide, he explained in a recent interview with CRN, that partners and Cisco employees can point to for cause when services conflicts get escalated in the field. Couple that with broad investments by Cisco in how it automates its services through software -- Cisco's made several acquisitions with this goal in mind this year -- and you have some very interesting goings-on in a $10 billion piece of the overall Cisco business.

More Competitive Posturing

Gratuitous displays of competitive saber rattling are not common for Cisco -- in fact, with notable exception, Cisco's gone to some length in recent years to not publicly address competitors by name and not pour gasoline on the competitive fires.

That's changing. The Cisco of old wouldn't have put out a targeted campaign -- blog posts, interviews, video and web sites -- needling Juniper for its edge routing promises. The Cisco of old wouldn't have explicitly named what it considers its most immediate competitive threats -- Juniper, Avaya, HP and Huawei, for those keeping score -- in a presentation from Chambers.

What's to be seen is how Cisco's newly bared fangs will affect Cisco channel partners -- positively or negatively.

How Cisco's Winning Deals

Much ado was made this summer about Cisco supposedly offering Purdue University an exclusive deal that was said to have discounted its Nexus 7000 data center switches by as much as 76 percent, and that's not the only reported instance of Cisco turning to heavy discounting to yank deals away from vicious networking competitors like HP. Cisco can spin such moves anyway it likes, of course, but solution providers need pay attention to how much "buying of the business" Cisco is doing these days.

Beefed-Up Product Roadmaps

One quietly fascinating takeaway from Chambers' remarks at Cisco's Financial Analyst Conference was that Cisco's various chief technology officers are now charged with bringing forth product roadmaps 18 months out. That's so Cisco can be more transparent with customers about what's coming next, Chambers said.

Will Cisco partners be able to rely on that timetable so they, too, can discuss Cisco product roadmaps in depth with potential customers? It's a question worth asking, considering how that might be a competitive advantage, and also clear up potential confusion. The chief executive of one national Cisco partner, who requested his name not be used, said Cisco is sending mixed messages to customers with its Catalyst and Nexus switching lines. Specifically, said the partner, Cisco is pushing its Nexus switches, but also updating Catalyst modules and refreshing key Catalyst offerings -- leading to "tremendous confusion for customers," he said. Would more clearly described product roadmaps solve that problem?

Momentum With Cisco Cius, If Any

Cisco's Cius, the Android-based tablet Cisco has positioned as an enterprise-grade unified communications endpoint, is only now getting into the hands of Cisco solution providers, who complain that it's been a long wait since Cisco's initial 2010 announcement of Cius to see the proverbial wood behind the arrow. Cisco has said Cius will break away from Apple's mighty iPad and other tablets thanks to enterprise features like onboard security controls and a tightly controlled application storefront called AppHQ, but with the iPad's juggernaut-like dominance and other tablet also-rans already given the Old Yeller treatment, the Cius has a tough, tough hill to climb.


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Cisco Completes Sale Of Service Provider Video Software Solutions Group To Permira Funds

As an arm of Cisco, the Service Provider Video Software Solutions Group was a cog in a much larger machine, Yves Padrines CEO of Synamedia is excited that now Synamedia will have the chance to flourish within its own right and concentrate on end-to-end video services. 

"We want to focus on helping their customers to embrace IP," he explains. "To complement their offerings for better consumer choice and convenience. Their online video platform can target any type of device, it could be a set-top box, connected TV, mobile devices, tablets, games consoles, etc.  from one single cloud-based solution."

Interestingly, Padrines sees broadband players as a growing market for the business. "We are looking to help broadband players to be the aggregator of OTT applications because some of these players don't want to spend too much money on acquiring content. They can help them to still be the one controlling the user experience on the video and TV side by having a unified view and search and aggregating all the different OTT applications. And, they can also help them to generate some additional revenue, by providing targeted advertising solutions."

With content now coming in from everywhere on the IP side, securing revenue streams will remain a priority for the new business. Illegal credential sharing, or unauthorized password sharing, is one area that Synamedia will be focusing on. "Credential sharing will impact negatively and there will be a loss of revenue of around $10 billion for pay-TV operators by 2021," says Padrines. "We want to help their customers to keep honest people honest. So they will help them to offer flexible packages, such as home plus college packages for families with kids in college, for example."

There will also be a push to help pay-TV customers generate new revenue streams, using the huge wealth of data that they hold on their customers, to create targeted advertising.

“While they are in a golden age of TV, our customers face challenges including the rising cost of content, soaring piracy levels, and the impact of large OTT challengers on the market. As an independent entity focused on this sector, we will help our customers optimize their current infrastructure and capitalize on OTT and IP distribution to expand consumer choice and convenience, secure their income and generate new revenue streams,” sums up Padrines.


 




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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug