Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 300-510
Exam Name : Implementing Cisco Service Provider Advanced Routing Solutions (SPRI)
Vendor Name : Cisco
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300-510 SPRI
Certifications: CCNP Service Provider, Cisco Certified Specialist - Service Provider Advanced Routing Implementation

This exam tests your knowledge of implementing service provider advanced routing technologies, including:
Routing protocols
Policy language
MPLS
Segment routing

Exam Description
The Implementing Cisco Service Provider Advanced Routing Solutions v1.0 (SPRI 300-510) exam is a 90-minute exam associated with the CCNP Service Provider and Cisco Certified Specialist - Service Provider Advanced Routing Implementation certifications. This exam tests a candidate's knowledge of implementing service provider advanced routing technologies including routing protocols, policy language, MPLS, and segment routing. The course, Implementing Cisco Service Provider Routing Solutions, helps candidates to prepare for this exam.

35% 1.0 Unicast Routing
1.1 Compare OSPF and IS-IS routing protocols
1.2 Troubleshoot OSPF multiarea operations (IPv4 and IPv6)
1.2.a Route advertisement
1.2.b Summarization
1.3 Troubleshoot IS-IS multilevel operations (IPv4 and IPv6)
1.3.a Route advertisement
1.3.b Summarization
1.4 Describe the BGP scalability and performance
1.4.a BGP confederations
1.4.b Route reflectors
1.5 Troubleshoot BGP
1.5.a Route advertisement
1.5.b Route reflectors
1.5.c Confederations
1.5.d Multihoming
1.5.e TTL security and inter-domain security
1.5.f Maximum prefix
1.5.g Route dampening
1.5.h Dynamic neighbors
1.5.i Communities
1.6 Describe IPv6 tunneling mechanisms
1.6.a Static IPv6-in-IPv4 tunnels
1.6.b Dynamic 6to4 tunnels
1.6.c IPv6 provider edge (6PE)
1.7 Implement fast convergence
1.7.a Bidirectional forwarding detection
1.7.b Nonstop Forwarding
1.7.c NSR
1.7.d Timers
1.7.e BGP pic (edge and core)
1.7.f LFA
1.7.g BGP additional and backup path
15% 2.0 Multicast Routing
2.1 Compare multicast concepts
2.1.a Multicast domains, distribution trees, and IGMP operations
2.1.b Any-Source Multicast (ASM) versus Source Specific Multicast (SSM)
2.1.c Intra-domain versus inter-domain multicast routing
2.2 Describe multicast concepts
2.2.a Mapping of multicast IP addresses to MAC addresses
2.2.b Multiprotocol BGP for IPv4 and IPv6
2.2.c Principles and operations of PIM-SM
2.2.d Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP) operations
2.2.e MLDP/P2MP
2.3 Implement PIM-SM operations
2.3.a Auto-RP, PIMv2 BSR, anycast RP
2.3.b BIDIR-PIM operations
2.3.c SSM operations
2.3.d MSDP operations
2.4 Troubleshoot multicast routing
2.4.a Single domain
2.4.b Multidomain
25% 3.0 Routing Policy and Manipulation
3.1 Compare routing policy language and route maps
3.2 Describe conditional matching
3.2.a Operations
3.2.b Semantics of policy applications and statements
3.2.c Regular expressions
3.2.d Policy sets
3.2.e Tags
3.2.f ACLs
3.2.g Prefix lists and prefix sets
3.2.h Route types
3.2.i BGP attributes and communities
3.2.j Hierarchical and parameterized structures
3.3 Troubleshoot route manipulation for IGPs
3.3.a IS-IS
3.3.b OSPF
3.4 Troubleshoot route manipulation for BGP
3.4.a Route filtering
3.4.b Traffic steering
25% 4.0 MPLS and Segment Routing
4.1 Troubleshoot MPLS
4.1.a LDP
4.1.b LSP
4.1.c Unified BGP
4.1.d BGP free core
4.1.e RSVP TE tunnels
4.2 Implement segment routing
4.2.a Routing protocol extensions (OSPF, IS-IS, BGP)
4.2.b SRGB and SRLB
4.2.c Topology-Independent Loop-Free Alternate (TI-LFA)
4.2.d Migration procedures (SR prefer and mapping server)
4.3 Describe segment routing traffic engineering
4.3.a Automated steering and coloring
4.3.b Policies (constraints, metrics, and attributes)
4.3.c PCE-based path calculation
4.4 Describe segment routing v6 (SRv6)
4.4.a Control plane operations
4.4.b Data plane operations



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug