Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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301 exam Format | 301 Course Contents | 301 Course Outline | 301 exam Syllabus | 301 exam Objectives


The 301a-LTM Specialist: Architect, Set-up & Deploy exam is one of two exams
required to achieve Certified F5 Technology Specialist, LTM status.
Individuals who pass this exam possess an of underlying principles – from SSLbased VPN implementation to symmetric and asymmetric acceleration – and can
draw on that insight to integrate BIG-IP Local Traffic Manager (LTM) into existing networks as well as new implementations. This is exam 1 of 2 and is based on TMOS v11.

Objective 1.01 Given an expected traffic volume, determine the appropriate SNAT configuration
Explain when SNAT is required
Describe the benefit of using SNAT pools
Objective 1.02 Given a scenario, determine the minimum profiles for an application U/A
Explain security options available for the application
Explain how to use LTM as a service proxy
Describe how a given service is deployed on an LTM
Objective 1.03 Given an application configuration, determine which functions can be offloaded to the LTM device
Explain how to offload HTTP servers for SSL compression and caching
Objective 1.04 Given an application configuration, determine which functions can be offloaded to the LTM device
Explain how to create an HTTP configuration to handle an HTTP server error
Objective 1.05 Given an application configuration, determine the appropriate profile and persistence options
Explain how to create an HTTP configuration for mobile clients
Explain how to create an HTTP configuration to optimize WAN connectivity
Determine when connection mirroring is required
Objective 1.06 Explain the steps necessary to configure AVR U/A
Explain the steps necessary to configure the AVR
Explain how to create an AVR profile and options
Objective 1.07 Given a set of reporting requirements, determine the AVR metrics and entities to collect
Explain the sizing implications of AVR on the LTM device
Explain the logging and notifications options of AVR
Explain the uses of the collected metrics and entities
Objective 1.08 Given a scenario, determine the appropriate monitor type and parameters to use
Explain how to create an application specific monitor
Given a desired outcome, determine where to apply health monitors
Determine under which circumstances an external monitor is required
Objective 1.09 Given a set of parameters, predict an outcome of a monitor status on other LTM device objects
Determine the effect of a monitor on the virtual server status
Determine the effect of active versus inline monitors on the application status or on the LTM device
Objective 1.10 Given a set of SSL requirements, determine the appropriate profile options to create or modify in the SSL profile
Describe the difference between client and server SSL profiles
Describe the difference between client and server SSL processing
Objective 1.11 Given a set of application requirements, describe the steps necessary to configure SSL
Describe the process to update expired SSL certificates
Describe the steps to incorporate client authentication to the SSL process
Objective 1.12 Given a set of application requirements, determine the appropriate virtual server type to use
Describe the process to update expired SSL certificates
Describe the steps to incorporate client authentication to the SSL process
Objective 1.13 Given a set of application requirements, determine the appropriate virtual
server configuration settings
Describe which steps are necessary to complete prior to creating the virtual server
Describe the security options when creating a virtual server (i.e., VLAN limitation, route domains, packet filters, iRules)
Objective 1.14 Explain the matching order of multiple virtual servers U/A
Objective 1.15 Given a scenario, determine the appropriate load balancing method(s) U/A
Identify the behavior of the application to be load balanced
Differentiate different load balancing methods
Explain how to perform outbound load balancing
Explain CARP persistence
Objective 1.16 Explain the effect of LTM device configuration parameters on load balancing decisions
Differentiate between members and nodes
Explain the effect of the load balancing method on the LTM platform
Explain the effect of CMP on load balancing methods
Explain the effect of OneConnect/MBLB on load balancing
Explain how monitors and load balancing methods interact
Section 2: Set-up, administer, and secure LTM devices Cognitive Complexity
Objective 2.01 Distinguish between the management interface configuration and application traffic interface configuration
Explain the requirements for management of the LTM devices
Explain the requirements for the application traffic traversing the LTM devices
Explain how to configure management connectivity options: AOM, serial console, USB & Management Ethernet Port
Objective 2.02 Given a network diagram, determine the appropriate network and system
settings (i.e., VLANs, selfIPs, trunks, routes, NTP servers, DNS servers, SNMP receivers and syslog servers)
Explain the requirements for self IPs (including port lockdown)
Explain routing requirements for management and application traffic (including route domains and IPv6)
Explain the effect of system time on LTM devices
Objective 2.03 Given a network diagram, determine the appropriate physical connectivity U/A
Explain physical network connectivity options of LTM devices
Objective 2.04 Explain how to configure remote authentication and multiple administration roles on the LTM device
Explain the relationship between route domains, user roles and administrative partitions
Explain the mapping between remote users and remote role groups
Explain the options for partition access and terminal access
Objective 2.05 Given a scenario, determine an appropriate high availability configuration (i.e., failsafe, failover and timers)
Explain the relationship between route domains, user roles and administrative partitions
Explain the mapping between remote users and remote role groups
Explain the options for partition access and terminal access
Objective 2.06 Given a scenario, describe the steps necessary to set up a device group, traffic group and HA group
Explain how to set up sync-only and sync-failover device service cluster
Explain how to configure HA groups
Explain how to assign virtual servers to traffic groups
Objective 2.07 Predict the behavior of an LTM device group or traffic groups in a given failure scenario
Objective 2.08 Determine the effect of LTM features and/or modules on LTM device performance and/or memory
Determine the effect of iRules on performance
Determine the effect of RAM cache on performance and memory
Determine the effect of compression on performance
Determine the effect of modules on performance and memory
Objective 2.09 Determine the effect of traffic flow on LTM device performance and/or utilization
Explain how to use traffic groups to maximize capacity
Objective 2.10 Determine the effect of virtual server settings on LTM device performance and/or utilization
Determine the effect of connection mirroring on performance
Objective 2.11 Describe how to deploy vCMP guests and how the resources are distributed R
Identify platforms that support vCMP
Identify the limitations of vCMP
Describe the effect of licensing and/or provisioning on the vCMP host and vCMP guest
Describe how to deploy vCMP guests
Explain how resources are assigned to vCMP guests (e.g., SSL, memory, CPU, disk)
Objective 2.12 Determine the appropriate LTM device security configuration to protect against a security threat
Explain the implications of SNAT and NAT on network promiscuity
Explain the implications of forwarding virtual servers on the environment security
Describe how to disable services
Describe how to disable ARP
Explain how to set up logging for security events on the LTM device
Explain how route domains can be used to enforce network segmentation
Section 3: Deploy applications Cognitive
Complexity
Objective 3.01 Describe how to deploy and modify applications using existing and/or updated iApp application templates
Identify the appropriate application template to use to deploy the application
Describe how to locate, retrieve and import new and updated application templates
Identify use cases for deploying the application templates
Objective 3.02 Given application requirements, determine the appropriate profiles and profile settings to use
Describe the connections between profiles and virtual servers
Describe profile inheritance
Explain how to configure the different SSL profile settings
Explain the effect of changing protocol settings
Explain the use cases for the fast protocols (e.g. fastL4, fastHTTP)
Explain the persistence overrides
Describe the use of HTTP classes and profiles
Describe the link between iRules and statistics, iRules and stream, and iRule events and profiles
Describe the link between iRules and persistence
Describe hashing persistence methods
Describe the cookie persistence options
Determine which profiles are appropriate for a given application
Determine when an iRule is preferred over a profile or vice versa
Explain how to manipulate the packet contents using profiles
Objective 3.03 Determine the effect of traffic flow on LTM device performance and/or utilization
Describe the effect of priority groups on load balancing
Explain the effects of SNAT settings on pools
Explain how persistence settings can override connection limits
Describe the relationship between monitors and state
Describe the functionality of Action On Service Down
Describe the functionality of Priority Group Activation
Describe the persistence across pools and services (e.g., Match Across Services, Match Across vs Match Across Pools)
Describe how connection limits are affected by node, pool and virtual server settings
Describe how priority groups are affected by connection limits



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug