Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 350-201
Exam Name : Performing CyberOps Using Core Security Technologies (CBRCOR)
Vendor Name : Cisco
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Exam Number: 350-201
Exam Name : CBRCOR Exam: Performing CyberOps Using Cisco Security Technologies v1.0
Exam Duration : 120 min.
Number of Questions: 60

Exam Description
Performing CyberOps Using Cisco Security Technologies v1.0 (CBRCOR 350-201) is a 120-minute test that is associated with the Cisco CyberOps Professional Certification. This test tests a candidate's knowledge of core cybersecurity operations including cybersecurity fundamentals, techniques, processes, and automation. The course Performing CyberOps Using Cisco Core Security Technologies helps candidates to prepare for this exam.

Course Outline
20% 1.0 Fundamentals
1.1 Interpret the components within a playbook
1.2 Determine the tools needed based on a playbook scenario
1.3 Apply the playbook for a common scenario (for example, unauthorized elevation of privilege, DoS and DDoS, website defacement)
1.4 Infer the industry for various compliance standards (for example, PCI, FISMA, FedRAMP, SOC, SOX, PCI, GDPR, Data Privacy, and ISO 27101)
1.5 Describe the concepts and limitations of cyber risk insurance
1.6 Analyze elements of a risk analysis (combination asset, vulnerability, and threat)
1.7 Apply the incident response workflow
1.8 Describe characteristics and areas of improvement using common incident response metrics
1.9 Describe types of cloud environments (for example, IaaS platform)
1.10 Compare security operations considerations of cloud platforms (for example, IaaS, PaaS) 30% 2.0 Techniques
2.1 Recommend data analytic techniques to meet specific needs or answer specific questions
2.2 Describe the use of hardening machine images for deployment
2.3 Describe the process of evaluating the security posture of an asset
2.4 Evaluate the security controls of an environment, diagnose gaps, and recommend improvement
2.5 Determine resources for industry standards and recommendations for hardening of systems
2.6 Determine patching recommendations, given a scenario
2.7 Recommend services to disable, given a scenario
2.8 Apply segmentation to a network
2.9 Utilize network controls for network hardening
2.10 Determine SecDevOps recommendations (implications)
2.11 Describe use and concepts related to using a Threat Intelligence Platform (TIP) to automate intelligence
2.12 Apply threat intelligence using tools
2.13 Apply the concepts of data loss, data leakage, data in motion, data in use, and data at rest based on common standards
2.14 Describe the different mechanisms to detect and enforce data loss prevention techniques
2.14.a host-based
2.14.b network-based
2.14.c application-based
2.14.d cloud-based
2.15 Recommend tuning or adapting devices and software across rules, filters, and policies
2.16 Describe the concepts of security data management
2.17 Describe use and concepts of tools for security data analytics
2.18 Recommend workflow from the described issue through escalation and the automation needed for resolution
2.19 Apply dashboard data to communicate with technical, leadership, or executive stakeholders
2.20 Analyze anomalous user and entity behavior (UEBA)
2.21 Determine the next action based on user behavior alerts
2.22 Describe tools and their limitations for network analysis (for example, packet capture tools, traffic analysis tools, network log analysis tools)
2.23 Evaluate artifacts and streams in a packet capture file
2.24 Troubleshoot existing detection rules
2.25 Determine the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) from an attack 30% 3.0 Processes
3.1 Prioritize components in a threat model
3.2 Determine the steps to investigate the common types of cases
3.3 Apply the concepts and sequence of steps in the malware analysis process:
3.3.a Extract and identify samples for analysis (for example, from packet capture or packet analysis tools)
3.3.b Perform reverse engineering
3.3.c Perform dynamic malware analysis using a sandbox environment
3.3.d Identify the need for additional static malware analysis
3.3.e Perform static malware analysis
3.3.f Summarize and share results
3.4 Interpret the sequence of events during an attack based on analysis of traffic patterns
3.5 Determine the steps to investigate potential endpoint intrusion across a variety of platform types (for example, desktop, laptop, IoT, mobile devices)
3.6 Determine known Indicators of Compromise (IOCs) and Indicators of Attack (IOAs), given a scenario
3.7 Determine IOCs in a sandbox environment (includes generating complex indicators)
3.8 Determine the steps to investigate potential data loss from a variety of vectors of modality (for example, cloud, endpoint, server, databases, application), given a scenario
3.9 Recommend the general mitigation steps to address vulnerability issues
3.10 Recommend the next steps for vulnerability triage and risk analysis using industry scoring systems (for example, CVSS) and other techniques
20% 4.0 Automation
4.1 Compare concepts, platforms, and mechanisms of orchestration and automation
4.2 Interpret basic scripts (for example, Python)
4.3 Modify a provided script to automate a security operations task
4.4 Recognize common data formats (for example, JSON, HTML, CSV, XML)
4.5 Determine opportunities for automation and orchestration
4.6 Determine the constraints when consuming APIs (for example, rate limited, timeouts, and payload)
4.7 Explain the common HTTP response codes associated with REST APIs
4.8 Evaluate the parts of an HTTP response (response code, headers, body)
4.9 Interpret API authentication mechanisms: basic, custom token, and API keys
4.10 Utilize Bash commands (file management, directory navigation, and environmental variables)
4.11 Describe components of a CI/CD pipeline
4.12 Apply the principles of DevOps practices
4.13 Describe the principles of Infrastructure as Code



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug