Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 350-501
Exam Name : Implementing and Operating Cisco Service Provider Network Core Technologies (SPCOR)
Vendor Name : Cisco
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350-501 exam Format | 350-501 Course Contents | 350-501 Course Outline | 350-501 exam Syllabus | 350-501 exam Objectives


350-501 SPCOR

Certifications: CCNP Service Provider, CCIE Service Provider, Cisco Certified Specialist - Service Provider Core

Duration: 120 minutes



This exam tests your knowledge of implementing core service provider network technologies, including:

- Core architecture

- Services

- Networking

- Automation

- Quality of services

- Security

- Network assurance



Exam Description

The Implementing and Operating Cisco Service Provider Network Core Technologies v1.0 (SPCOR 350-501) exam is a 120-minute exam associated with the CCNP Service Provider, CCIE Service Provider, and Cisco Certified Specialist - Service Provider Core certifications. This exam tests a candidate's knowledge of implementing core service provider network technologies including core architecture, services, networking, automation, quality of services, security, and network assurance. The course, Implementing and Operating Cisco Service Provider Network Core Technologies, helps candidates to prepare for this exam.



15% 1.0 Architecture

1.1 Describe service provider architectures

1.1.a Core architectures (Metro Ethernet, MPLS, unified MPLS, SR)

1.1.b Transport technologies (Optical, xDSL, DOCSIS, TDM, and xPON)

1.1.c Mobility (packet core, RAN xhaul transport for 4G and 5G)

1.2 Describe Cisco network software architecture

1.2.a IOS

1.2.b IOS XE

1.2.c IOS XR

1.3 Describe service provider virtualization

1.3.a NFV infrastructure

1.3.b VNF workloads

1.3.c OpenStack

1.4 Describe QoS architecture

1.4.a MPLS QOS models (Pipe, Short Pipe, and Uniform)

1.4.b MPLS TE QoS (MAM, RDM, CBTS, PBTS, and DS-TE)

1.4.c DiffServ and IntServ QoS models

1.4.d Trust boundaries between enterprise and SP environments

1.4.e IPv6 flow label

1.5 Configure and verify control plan security

1.5.a Control plane protection techniques (LPTS and CoPP)

1.5.b BGP-TTL security and protocol authentication

1.5.c BGP prefix suppression

1.5.d LDP security (authentication and label allocation filtering)

1.5.e BGP sec

1.5.f BGP flowspec

1.6 Describe management plane security

1.6.a Traceback

1.6.b AAA and TACACS

1.6.c RestAPI security

1.6.d DdoS

1.7 Implement data plane security

1.7.a uRPF

1.7.b ACLs

1.7.c RTBH

30% 2.0 Networking

2.1 Implement IS-IS (IPv4 and IPv6)

2.1.a Route advertisement

2.1.b Area addressing

2.1.c Multitopology

2.1.d Metrics

2.2 Implement OSPF (v2 and v3)

2.2.a Neighbor adjacency

2.2.b Route advertisement

2.2.c Multiarea (addressing and types)

2.2.d Metrics

2.3 Describe BGP path selection algorithm

2.4 Implement BGP (v4 and v6 for IBGP and EBGP)

2.4.a Neighbors

2.4.b Prefix advertisement

2.4.c Address family

2.4.d Path selection

2.4.e Attributes

2.4.f Redistribution

2.5 Implement routing policy language and route maps (BGP, OSPF, IS-IS)

2.6 Troubleshoot routing protocols

2.6.a Neighbor adjacency (IS-IS, OSPF, BGP)

2.6.b Route advertisement (IS-IS, OSPF, BGP)

2.7 Describe IPv6 transition (NAT44, NAT64, 6RD, MAP, and DS Lite)

2.8 Implement high availability

2.8.a NSF / graceful restart

2.8.b NSR

2.8.c BFD

2.8.d Link aggregation

20% 3.0 MPLS and Segment Routing

3.1 Implement MPLS

3.1.a LDP sync

3.1.b LDP session protection

3.1.c LDP neighbors

3.1.d Unified MPLS

3.1.e MPLS OAM

3.2 Describe traffic engineering

3.2.a ISIS and OSPF extensions

3.2.b RSVP functionality

3.2.c FRR

3.3 Describe segment routing

3.3.a Segment types

3.3.b IGP control plane

3.3.c Segment routing traffic engineering

3.3.d TI-LFa

3.3.e PCE-PCC architectures

20% 4.0 Services

4.1 Describe VPN services

4.1.a EVPN

4.1.b Inter-AS VPN

4.1.c CSC

4.1.d mVPN

4.2 Configure L2VPN and Carrier Ethernet

4.2.a Ethernet services (E-Line, E-Tree, E-Access, E-LAN)

4.2.b IEEE 802.1ad, IEEE 802.1ah, and ITU G.8032

4.2.c Ethernet OAM

4.2.d VLAN tag manipulation

4.3 Configure L3VPN

4.3.a Intra-AS VPN

4.3.b Shared services (extranet and Internet)

4.4 Implement multicast services

4.4.a PIM (PIM-SM, PIM-SSM, and PIM-BIDIR)

4.4.b IGMP v1/v2/v3 and MLD

4.5 Implement QoS services

4.5.a Classification and marking

4.5.b Congestion avoidance, traffic policing, and shaping

15% 5.0 Automation and Assurance

5.1 Describe the programmable APIs used to include Cisco devices in network automation

5.2 Interpret an external script to configure a Cisco device using a REST API

5.3 Describe the role of Network Services Orchestration (NSO)

5.4 Describe the high-level principles and benefits of a data modeling language, such as YANG

5.5 Compare agent vs. agentless configuration management tools, such as Chef, Puppet, Ansible, and SaltStack

5.6 Describe data analytics and model-driven telemetry in service provider

5.7 Configure dial-in/out telemetry streams using gRPC

5.8 Configure and verify NetFlow/IPFIX

5.9 Configure and verify NETCONF and RESTCONF

5.10 Configure and verify SNMP (v2c/v3)



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug