Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 350-601
Exam Name : Implementing Cisco Data Center Core Technologies (DCCOR)
Vendor Name : Cisco
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350-601 test Format | 350-601 Course Contents | 350-601 Course Outline | 350-601 test Syllabus | 350-601 test Objectives


350-601 DCCOR
Certifications: CCNP Data Center, CCIE Data Center, Cisco Certified Specialist - Data Center Core
Duration: 120 minutes

This test tests your knowledge of implementing core data center technologies, including:
- Network
- Compute
- Storage network
- Automation
- Security

Exam Description
The Implementing and Operating Cisco Data Center Core Technologies v1.0 (DCCOR 350-601) test is a 120-minute test associated with the CCNP Data Center, Cisco Certified Specialist - Data Center Core, and CCIE Data Center certifications. This test tests a candidate's knowledge of implementing core data center technologies including network, compute, storage network, automation, and security. The course, Implementing and Operating Cisco Data Center Core Technologies, helps candidates to prepare for this exam.

25% 1.0 Network
1.1 Apply routing protocols
1.1.a OSPFv2, OSPFv3
1.1.b MP-BGP
1.1.c PIM
1.1.d FHRP
1.2 Apply switching protocols such as RSTP+, LACP and vPC
1.3 Apply overlay protocols such as VXLAN EVPN and OTV
1.4 Apply ACI concepts
1.4.a Fabric setup
1.4.b Access policies
1.4.c VMM
1.4.d Tenant policies
1.5 Analyze packet flow (unicast, multicast, and broadcast)
1.6 Analyze Cloud service and deployment models (NIST 800-145)
1.7 Describe software updates and their impacts
1.7.a Disruptive / nondisruptive
1.7.b EPLD
1.7.c Patches
1.8 Implement network configuration management
1.9 Implement infrastructure monitoring such as NetFlow and SPAN
1.10 Explain network assurance concepts such as streaming telemetry
25% 2.0 Compute
2.1 Implement Cisco Unified Compute System Rack Servers
2.2 Implement Cisco Unified Compute System Blade Chassis
2.2.a Initial setup
2.2.b Infrastructure management
2.2.c Network management (VLANs, pools and policies, templates, QoS)
2.2.d Storage management (SAN connectivity, Fibre Channel zoning, VSANs, WWN pools, SAN policies, templates)
2.2.e Server management (Server pools and boot policies)
2.3 Explain HyperFlex Infrastructure Concepts and benefits (Edge and Hybrid Architecture vs all-flash)
2.4 Describe firmware and software updates and their impacts on B-Series and C-Series servers
2.5 Implement compute configuration management (Backup and restore)
2.6 Implement infrastructure monitoring such as SPAN and Intersight
20% 3.0 Storage Network
3.1 Implement Fibre Channel
3.1.a Switch fabric initialization
3.1.b Port channels
3.1.c FCID
3.1.d CFS
3.1.e Zoning
3.1.f FCNS
3.1.g Device alias
3.1.h NPV and NPIV
3.1.i VSAN
3.2 Implement FCoE Unified Fabric (FIP and DCB)
3.3 Describe NFS and NAS concepts
3.4 Describe software updates and their impacts (Disruptive/nondisruptive and EPLD)
3.5 Implement infrastructure monitoring
15% 4.0 Automation
4.1 Implement automation and scripting tools
4.1.a EEM
4.1.b Scheduler
4.1.c Bash Shell and Guest Shell for NX-OS
4.1.d REST API
4.1.e JSON and XML encodings
4.2 Evaluate automation and orchestration technologies
4.2.a Ansible
4.2.b Puppet
4.2.c Python
4.2.d POAP
4.2.e DCNM
4.2.f UCSD
4.2.g PowerShell
15% 5.0 Security
5.1 Apply network security
5.1.a AAA and RBAC
5.1.b ACI contracts and microsegmentation
5.1.c First-hop security features such as dynamic ARP inspection (DAI), DHCP snooping, and port security
5.1.d CoPP
5.2 Apply compute security
5.2.a AAA and RBAC
5.2.b Keychain authentication
5.3 Apply storage security
5.3.a AAA and RBAC
5.3.b Port security
5.3.c Fabric binding



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug