Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 3V0-21.21
Exam Name : Advanced Design VMware vSphere 7.x
Vendor Name : Vmware
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3V0-21.21 test Format | 3V0-21.21 Course Contents | 3V0-21.21 Course Outline | 3V0-21.21 test Syllabus | 3V0-21.21 test Objectives

Exam Number: 3V0-21.21
Exam Name : Advanced Design VMware vSphere 7.x
Exam Duration : 150 min.
Number of Questions: 60
Passing Score : 300
Format: Single and Multiple Choice, Proctored

Exam Description
This test tests a candidate's ability to apply design principles to develop a vSphere 7.x conceptual design given a set of customer requirements, determine the functional and non-functional requirements needed to create a logical design, and architect a physical design using these elements.
The Advanced Design VMware vSphere 7.x test (3V0-21.21), which leads to the VMware Certified Advanced Professional – Data Center Virtualization Design 2021 certification, is a 60-item test with a passing score of 300 using a scaled method. Candidates are given an test time of 150 minutes, which includes adequate time to complete the test for nonnative English speakers.

Exam Sections

VMware test blueprint sections are now standardized to the seven sections below, some of which may NOT be included in the final test blueprint depending on the test objectives.
Section 1 – Architecture and Technologies
Section 2 – Products and Solutions
Section 3 – Planning and Designing
Section 4 – Installing, Configuring, and Setup
Section 5 – Performance-tuning, Optimization, and Upgrades
Section 6 – Troubleshooting and Repairing
Section 7 – Administrative and Operational Tasks

Sections Included in this Exam
Section 1 –Architectures and Technologies
Objective 1.1 – Differentiate between conceptual, logical and physical elements of a design
Objective 1.2 – Differentiate between functional and non-functional requirements
Objective 1.3 – Differentiate between Availability, Manageability, Performance, Recoverability, Scalability and Security (AMPRSS)
Section 2 – VMware Products and Solutions - There are no testable objectives for this section.
Section 3 – Planning and Designing
Objective 3.1 – Gather and analyze functional requirements
3.1.1 – Gather and analyze service-level agreement (SLA) requirements
3.1.2 – Gather network, storage and compute requirements
3.1.3 – Gather workload design requirements
3.1.4 – Gather capacity and performance requirements
Objective 3.2 – Gather and analyze non-functional requirements
3.2.1 – Determine security requirements for a vSphere design
3.2.2 – Determine data protection requirements for a vSphere design
3.2.3 – Determine business continuity requirements for a vSphere design
3.2.4 – Determine disaster recovery requirements for a vSphere design
3.2.5 – Determine compliance requirements for a vSphere design
Objective 3.3 – Determine risks, constraints and assumptions for a design
Objective 3.4 – Create a vCenter Server logical design
3.4.1 – Design a single-site, multi-site, multi-region deployment
3.4.2 – Define a virtual data center design
3.4.3 – Determine availability requirements for vCenter Server
Objective 3.5 – Create a vSphere cluster logical design
3.5.1. – Differentiate between workload or management clusters
3.5.2. – Define a workload cluster design
Objective 3.6 – Create a vSphere host logical design
3.6.1 – Recommend compute resource requirements
3.6.2 – Identify and address scalability requirements
3.6.3 – Determine hypervisor deployment method
Objective 3.7 – Create a vSphere network logical design
3.7.1 – Determine network protocol needs
3.7.2 – Design network segregation for different traffic types
3.7.3 – Determine physical and virtual networking topology
Objective 3.8 – Create a vSphere storage logical design
3.8.1 – Determine storage topology needs (e.g., SAN, local, Hyper-Converged Infrastructure or HCI)
3.8.2 – Evaluate storage protocols based on a given scenario/requirements
3.8.3 – Determine different storage segregation techniques based on a given scenario
3.8.4 – Determine physical and storage connectivity topology
Objective 3.9 – Create a workload logical design
3.9.1 – Determine workload sizing
3.9.2 – Determine workload placement
Objective 3.10 – Create a vCenter Server physical design
3.10.1 – Determine the correct sizing for vCenter Server based on workload requirements
3.10.2 – Map clusters to logical design
Objective 3.11 – Create a vSphere cluster physical design
3.11.1 – Determine the appropriate Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS), Predictive Distributed Resource
Scheduler (pDRS), and Distributed Power Management (DPM) configurations based on requirements
3.11.2 – Determine the appropriate Proactive High Availability/High Availability configurations based on requirements
3.11.3 – Determine the appropriate vSphere Enhanced vMotion Compatibility (EVC) configurations based on requirements
3.11.4 – Determine the appropriate cluster size based on requirements
Objective 3.12 – Create a vSphere host physical design
3.12.1 – Identify the hypervisor deployment method
3.12.2 – Determine the appropriate host size based on requirements
3.12.3 – Determine the appropriate host configurations (network adapters, local storage, RAID controller)
based on requirements
Objective 3.13 – Create a vSphere network physical design
3.13.1 – Determine bandwidth needs based on requirements
3.13.2 – Determine NIC teaming and load balancing methods
3.13.3 – Design VMkernel adapters based on requirements
3.13.4 – Determine Network I/O Control (NIOC) configurations based on requirements
3.13.5 – Determine switch type (standard vs distributed) based on requirements
Objective 3.14 – Create a vSphere storage physical design
3.14.1 – Determine storage multi-pathing and load balancing methods
3.14.2 – Determine the Storage DRS configuration
3.14.3 – Determine appropriate datastore configurations based on requirements
3.14.4 – Determine the physical storage design based on requirements
3.14.5 – Determine appropriate storage policy based on requirements
Objective 3.15 – Create a workload physical design based on application requirements
3.15.1 – Determine workload virtual hardware (e.g., number of network interface cards (NICs) and type of NIC)
3.15.2 – Design content library topology

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug