Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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The biggest cybersecurity and cyberattack stories of 2023

2023

2023 was a big year for cybersecurity, with significant cyberattacks, data breaches, new threat groups emerging, and, of course, zero-day vulnerabilities.

Some stories, though, were more impactful or popular with their 22 million readers than others.

Below are fourteen of what BleepingComputer believes are the most impactful cybersecurity stories of 2023, with a summary of each.

14. The 23andMe data breach

Genetic testing provider 23andMe suffered credential stuffing attacks that led to a major data breach, exposing the data of 6.9 million users.

The company states that the attackers only breached a small number of accounts during the credential-stuffing attacks. However, the threat actors were able to abuse other features to scrape millions of individuals' data.

The threat actors attempted to sell the stolen data, but after not receiving buyers, leaked the data for 1 million Ashkenazi Jews and 4,011,607 people living in Great Britain on a hacking forum.

In a accurate update, 23andMe told BleepingComputer that the breach impacted 6.9 million people — 5.5 million through the DNA Relatives feature and 1.4 million through the Family Tree feature.

This breach has led to multiple class action lawsuits against the company for not adequately protecting data.

13. Hosting firm says it lost all customer data after ransomware attack

Two Danish hosting providers were forced to shut down after a ransomware attack encrypted the majority of customer data, and data restoration was not successful.

"Since they neither can nor wish to meet the financial demands of the criminal hackers for a ransom, CloudNordic's IT team and external experts have been working intensively to assess the damage and determine what could be recovered," reads CloudNordic's statement (machine translated)

"Sadly, it has been impossible to recover more data, and the majority of their customers have consequently lost all their data with us."

12. Anonymous Sudan hacktivists show that DDoS attacks can impact the largest tech firms

A hacktivist group known as Anonymous Sudan took everyone by surprise when their DDoS attacks took down the websites and services of some of the largest tech firms in the world.

The group's attacks gained wide media attention when they successfully took down login pages for Microsoft's services, including Outlook, OneDrive, and the Azure portal.

Over a week later, Microsoft finally confirmed that DDoS attacks caused these outages.

"Beginning in early June 2023, Microsoft identified surges in traffic against some services that temporarily impacted availability," confirmed Microsoft.

"Microsoft promptly opened an investigation and subsequently began tracking ongoing DDoS activity by the threat actor that Microsoft tracks as Storm-1359."

Anonymous Sudan later targeted numerous other websites, including those for ChatGPT, Cloudflare, and U.S. government services.

The increasing DDoS attacks and their impact led the U.S. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) to release an advisory about these incidents.

11. New acoustic attack steals data from keystrokes with 95% accuracy

A team of researchers from British universities trained a deep learning model to steal data from keyboard keystrokes recorded using a microphone with an accuracy of 95%.

When Zoom was used for training the sound classification algorithm, the prediction accuracy dropped to 93%, which is still extremely high.

To mitigate these attacks, the researchers suggest users may try altering typing styles or using randomized passwords. Other defense measures include using software to reproduce keystroke sounds, play white noise, or software-based keystroke audio filters.

10.  PayPal accounts breached in large-scale credential stuffing attack

PayPal suffered a credential stuffing attack between December 6 and December 8, 2022, allowing attackers to access 34,942 accounts.

Credential stuffing is an attack where hackers attempt to access an account by trying out username and password pairs sourced from data leaks on various websites.

Hackers had access to account holders' full names, dates of birth, postal addresses, social security numbers, and individual tax identification numbers.

9. Dish Network goes offline after likely cyberattack, employees cut off

American T.V. giant and satellite broadcast provider DISH Network mysteriously went offline earlier this year, with its websites and mobile apps not working for days.

DISH later confirmed that the outage was caused by a ransomware attack, with BleepingComputer first to report that the Black Basta ransomware gang was behind the attack.

Employees told BleepingComputer that the ransomware gang compromised the company's Windows domain controllers and encrypted VMware ESXi servers and backups.

DISH data breach notifications confirmed that data was stolen in the attack and hinted that a ransom was paid not to release the stolen data.

"We are not aware of any misuse of your information, and they have received confirmation that the extracted data has been deleted," read the data breach notification.

8. GoDaddy: Hackers stole source code, installed malware in multi-year breach

Web hosting giant GoDaddy says it suffered a multi-year breach allowing unknown attackers to steal source code and install malware on its servers.

This breach began in 2021 and allowed the threat actors access to the personal information of 1.2 million Managed WordPress customers, including credentials, and also used the access to redirect websites to other domains.

No threat actors ever claimed responsibility for this attack.

7. MGM Resorts cyberattack shuts down IT systems after cyberattack

MGM Resorts International suffered a massive attack that impacted numerous systems, including its main website, online reservations, and in-casino services, like ATMs, slot machines, and credit card machines.

The BlackCat ransomware operation claimed the attack, whose affiliates said they encrypted over 100 ESXi hypervisors during the incident.

Bloomberg reported that the same group also breached Caesars Entertainment's network, providing a strong hint in a Form 8-K SEC filing that they paid the attackers to prevent a leak of customers' stolen data.

While the attack was significant, it also brought wide attention to a loose-knit group of hackers known as Scattered Spider.

Scattered Spider, also known as 0ktapus, Starfraud, UNC3944, and Muddled Libra, is adept at social engineering and relies on phishing, multi-factor authentication (MFA) bombing (targeted MFA fatigue), and SIM swapping to gain initial network access on large organizations.

Members of this collective are affiliates of the BlackCat ransomware gang and include young English-speaking members with diverse skill sets who frequent the same hacking forums and Telegram channels.

While many believe this is a cohesive gang, the group is a network of individuals, with different threat actors participating in each attack. This fluid structure is what makes it challenging to track them.

In November, the FBI released an advisory highlighting the group's tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs).

Scattered Spider is behind previous attacks on Reddit, MailChimp, Twilio, DoorDash, and Riot Games.

6. Hackers compromise 3CX desktop app in a supply chain attack

3CX was breached by the North Korean Lazarus hacking group to push malware through a supply chain attack using the company's Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) desktop client.

3CX is a VoIP IPBX software development company whose 3CX Phone System is used by more than 350,000 companies worldwide and has over 12 million daily users.

3CX was breached after an employee installed a trojanized version of Trading Technologies' X_TRADER software, which allowed the threat actors to steal corporate credentials and breach the network.

The attackers pushed out a malicious software update that installed a previously unknown information-stealing malware to steal data and credentials stored in Chrome, Edge, Brave, and Firefox user profiles.

5. Barracuda says hacked ESG appliances must be replaced immediately

In May, Barracuda disclosed that some of their Email Security Gateway (ESG) appliances were hacked using a zero-day vulnerability to install malware and steal data.

We later learned that the attacks were linked to Chinese threat actors, who used the vulnerability since 2022 to infect ESG devices with new malware named 'Saltwater,' 'Seaspy,' and 'Seaside.'

CISA later disclosed that Submarine and Whirlpool malware were also used in the attacks to backdoor ESG devices.

What stood out from these attacks is that instead of using a software fix for impacted ESG devices, Barracuda warned customers they must replace their Email Security Gateway (ESG) appliances, which was done free of charge.

"Impacted ESG appliances must be immediately replaced regardless of patch version level," the company warned at the time.

"Barracuda's remediation recommendation at this time is full replacement of the impacted ESG."

This unusual request led many to believe that the threat actors compromised the devices at a low level, making it impossible to ensure they were completely clean.

Mandiant, who was part of the incident response in these attacks, told BleepingComputer that this was recommended out of caution, as Barracuda could not ensure the complete removal of malware.

4. Massive ESXiArgs ransomware attack targets VMware ESXi servers worldwide

In February 2023, a massive ransomware campaign targeted exposed VMware ESXi servers worldwide, quickly encrypting the virtual machines for thousands of companies.

Just hours after the attack, victims began reporting in the BleepingComputer's forum that files with vmxf, .vmx, .vmdk, .vmsd, and .nvram, all files associated with VMware ESXi virtual machines, were encrypted.

The ransomware campaign was dubbed ESXiArgs due to an .args file being created for every encrypted file.

The VMware ESXi console home page was modified to show a ransom note demanding 2.0781 bitcoins, worth approximately $49,000 at the time.

3. Brazil seizing Flipper Zero shipments to prevent use in crime

One of BleepingComputer's most-read stories of the year was the news that the Brazilian National Telecommunications Agency seized incoming Flipper Zero purchases for their potential to be used in criminal activity.

Brazilians who purchased the Flipper Zero reported that their shipments were redirected to Brazil's telecommunications agency, Anatel, due to a lack of certification with the country's Radio Frequencies department.

From emails seen by BleepingComputer, Anatel flagged the device as a tool used for criminal purposes.

2. The Operation Triangulation iPhone attacks

In June, researchers from Kaspersky first disclosed a new zero-click iOS attack called "Operation Triangulation" used to install the TriangleDB spyware on iPhones.

Kaspersky discovered the attack on devices within its own network, and Russia's FSB intelligence service accused Apple of providing the NSA with a backdoor. However, the true origins of the attack remain unknown, and there is no proof that the U.S. government is behind the attacks.

The attacks start with the hackers sending a malicious iMessage attachment that, when processed by iOS, automatically triggers a zero-click exploit chain. A zero-click exploit means it does not require interaction from the user to be triggered.

The attacks chained together four zero-day iOS vulnerabilities listed below to install the spyware:

  • CVE-2023-41990: A vulnerability in the ADJUST TrueType font instruction allowing remote code execution through a malicious iMessage attachment.
  • CVE-2023-32434: An integer overflow issue in XNU's memory mapping syscalls, granting attackers extensive read/write access to the device's physical memory.
  • CVE-2023-32435: Used in the Safari exploit to execute shellcode as part of the multi-stage attack.
  • CVE-2023-38606: A vulnerability using hardware MMIO registers to bypass the Page Protection Layer (PPL), overriding hardware-based security protections.
  • Last week, Kaspersky disclosed that the final zero-day vulnerability, CVE-2023-38606, abused an undocumented feature in Apple chips to bypass hardware-based security protections.

    While the Operation Triangulation attacks did not impact many devices, it could be one of the most sophisticated iOS attacks seen to date.

    While it's still unknown who is behind the attacks, their sophistication has led cybersecurity researchers to believe that a government-sponsored hacking group is behind them.

    1. The MOVEit Transfer data theft attacks

    BleepingComputer was the first to report the widespread data-theft attacks exploiting a zero-day vulnerability in the MOVEit Transfer secure file transfer platform.

    MOVEit Transfer is a managed file transfer (MFT) solution developed by Ipswitch, a subsidiary of US-based Progress Software Corporation, that allows the enterprise to securely transfer files between business partners and customers using SFTP, SCP, and HTTP-based uploads.

    This vulnerability allowed the threat actors to breach MOVEit Transfer servers and get the stored data.

    The attacks were soon claimed by the Clop ransomware gang, who previously launched similar attacks through zero-day vulnerabilities in Accellion FTA and GoAnywhere.

    According to Emsisoft, 2,706 organizations were breached using this vulnerability, exposing the personal data of over 93 million people.


    BPSC Prelims Question Paper: PDF Download

    BPSC Prelims Question Paper is one of the best tools for effective preparation for the exam. Candidates going to attempt the BPSC integrated CCE prelims test must get the BPSC prelims previous year question paper. It provides valuable details about the test structure, maximum marks, and subjects usually asked in the exam.

    There are various benefits to solving BPSC previous year question papers, as it will maximise their chances of qualifying for the preliminary exam. It allows them to align their techniques with the latest trends and requirements.

    In this article, they have shared the get link to previous years BPSC prelims question papers PDFs along with the latest test pattern.

    BPSC Prelims Question Paper 2024

    The BPSC question paper for prelims and main exams is released after the test is conducted successfully. Candidates planning to appear for the BPSC 70th 2024 test can get the BPSC prelims question paper PDF for previous years to know where the preparation stands. Reviewing the BPSC previous year question paper will provide insights into the test requirements and allow them to devise their strategy accordingly. Get the direct link to get the BPSC preliminary question paper PDF. 

    BPSC Prelims Previous Year Question Papers PDF

    Candidates should solve questions from the BPSC prelims previous year question paper pdf to know the subjects from which questions have repeatedly been asked in the test in the last few years. Also, they should practice the BPSC prelims question paper to discover their strengths and weaknesses and strategize their preparation accordingly.

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    There are various benefits to solving BPSC prelims and previous year question papers, as listed below:

  • It helps them track their preparation progress and focus on strengthening their mistakes to score well in the exam.
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  • Solving BPSC question papers will help them analyse their strengths and weaknesses and devote time to subjects accordingly in the last phase of their preparation.
  • Attempting BPSC prelims question papers with solutions PDF will allow them to understand subjects often asked in the exam, along with the question weightage and difficulty level.
  • How to Attempt BPSC Prelims Question paper?

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  • Read the entire BPSC prelims question paper carefully.
  • Set a count-down timer or stopwatch to solve the questions in real timed environment.
  • Attempt familiar questions first, then pick the less familiar ones in the BPSC preliminary question papers.
  • Once the timers stop, avoid attempting any questions and cross-check their answers with the answer key to know their overall performance.
  • BPSC Prelims Question Papers Analysis

    As per the previous year BPSC prelims test analysis, the overall difficulty level of the BPSC question paper was easy to moderate. A total of 150 questions were asked in the BPSC preliminary question paper. Questions were asked about subjects like history, geography, polity, economy, general science, current affairs, bihar specific, aptitude and reasoning sections, etc.

    BPSC Prelims Question Paper Pattern

    Candidates should check the BPSC question paper pattern to understand the structure, question type, distribution of marks, and the marking scheme defined by the officials.  The BPSC prelims test comprises objective-type questions for 150 marks. The medium of the question paper will be Hindi and English. The BPSC preliminary test pattern for 2024 is shared below.

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    Haryana Board Class 12 Accountancy Model Paper 2024: get PDF and Solve Now!

    Haryana Class 12 Accounts Model Paper 2024: The Board of School Education Haryana (BSEH) has released the Haryana Board Class 12 Accountancy Model Paper 2024 for students to practice for the upcoming annual examinations. The BSEH Class 12 Accounts demo Paper 2024 is available on the official website at bseh.org.in in PDF format.The Haryana Board 12th Accountancy Model Paper 2023-24 serves as a valuable resource for students preparing for their upcoming exams. This meticulously crafted model paper is designed by experts to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the test pattern, question types, and the depth of knowledge expected at the Class 12 level.As an integral component of the Haryana Board's educational framework, the model paper aims to facilitate effective test preparation by offering a structured and representative demo of questions that align with the curriculum. Students can use this resource to assess their grasp of key accounting concepts, enhance their problem-solving skills, and familiarise themselves with the format and difficulty level of questions that may appear in the actual examination.The Haryana Board Class 12 Accountancy demo Paper provides a simulated testing environment that allows students to identify areas of strength and areas that may require additional focus. Furthermore, the model paper serves as a roadmap for effective study planning, enabling students to allocate their time and efforts efficiently across various subjects within the accountancy syllabus. By incorporating this resource into their study routine, students can boost their confidence, refine their exam-taking strategies, and ultimately enhance their chances of success in the BSEH Class 12 Accounts test 2024.General Instructions:
  • This question paper comprises two Parts- A and B. There are 30 questions in the question paper. All questions are compulsory.
  • Part A is compulsory for all candidates.
  • Part B has two options i.e. (1) Analysis of Financial Statements and (2) Computerized Accounting. You have to attempt only one of the given options.
  • Questions nos. 1 to 10 and 23 – 27 are very short answer-type questions carrying 1 mark each.
  • Questions nos. 11 - 15 and 28 are questions carrying 2 marks each.
  • Questions nos. 16 to 20 and 29 are questions carrying 3 marks each.
  • Questions nos. 21, 22, and 30 are questions carrying 5 marks each.
  • There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in 2 questions of two marks, 2 questions of three marks, and all questions of Five marks.

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug