Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Transfer window: The art of doing a deal - and how to come out a winner

Sports Insight Banner Luis Suarez in Liverpool kit looking pensive Luis Suarez joined Barcelona from Liverpool for £75m in July 2014 - a year after Arsenal's failed attempt to sign him

Sign up for notifications to the latest Insight features via the BBC Sport app and find the most exact in the series here.

"Does Luis Suarez ring a bell?"

Dick Law has a wry chuckle as he introduces the Uruguayan into conversation.

Suarez isn't being recalled for the scoring, bawling, biting or handballing. Instead, for once, it is something he didn't do.

Ten years ago, in the summer of 2013, Law was in charge of overseeing Arsenal's transfer business and manager Arsene Wenger wanted another striker.

At Liverpool, Suarez had scored 23 Premier League goals for a team that finished seventh and wanted to join another club.

So, Arsenal moved.

Having seen a copy of Suarez's contract, Law knew it contained a clause mentioning bids over £40m.

Law also knew that figure was unlikely to be enough to buy Suarez - the clause was too vaguely written to force Liverpool's hand. But he hoped that might be the number that started negotiations, fuelled Suarez's desire to leave and paved the way to a deal.

Law sent over an offer of £40m, plus one symbolic pound.

"Our approach was just to start a conversation," he says.

He didn't get the reply he wanted.

"What do you think they're smoking over there at Emirates?" tweeted Liverpool owner John W Henry in response. external-link

An apparently unhappy Suarez skulked about in a couple of friendlies, but ultimately stayed at Liverpool, rather than submit a formal transfer request to up Arsenal's ante.

"Was Suarez committed to leaving?" asks Law.

"If you are the buying club, you need more than a week or two. When things inevitably get sticky, you need a sense that the player is going to push from their end.

"In retrospect, should they have offered £45m? Sure. Would it ultimately have changed the outcome? I don't think so."

On that occasion Law lost out, but in the summer game of transfer bid and bluff, there is always another hand to play, another deal to do.

And strategy and tactics are critical if you are to win more than you lose.

Short presentational grey line

The Charlie Chaplin. The Colombo. The Salami. Aim for the Stars. Tell Me Why. Sowing the Seed.

Dan Hughes' tactical playbook runs to 39 different ploys and 12 pages.

A negotiation specialist, he was more used to talking it through with corporate business clients when, 15 years ago, he received a phone call.

Mike Rigg was on the line, trying to make sense of a world turned upside down.

Rigg had been appointed as Manchester City's head of player acquisition just a few weeks before Sheikh Mansour had bought the club, suddenly swelling his transfer budget many times over and propelling him into competition with Europe's superpowers.

Rigg had gained a fortune, but lost any leverage. As soon as City made enquiries, selling clubs ratcheted up the prices. Rigg couldn't get a toehold in negotiations so he asked Hughes' advice.

He was the first, but not the last.

Hughes and his firm Bridge Ability now advise a number of Premier League clubs, agents and even some players on how to get an upper hand in transfer negotiations. They also help deliver a Football Association course external-link aimed at senior scouting staff and technical directors.

"Often these roles have been filled by ex-players or scouts," explains Hughes.

"They are really good at the technical part of the job - spotting players - but when it comes to having to negotiate with a club or agent, they would end up having rings run around them."

This is the advice of Law, Hughes and Damien Comolli, the former Liverpool and Tottenham director of football, now president at Ligue 1 Toulouse, on how to avoid being the boardroom fall guy at this time of year.

Know your enemy - and know yourselves

"My colleagues at other clubs were very capable and competent people, but each of them were working within the contexts they were given," says Law.

"It was no good being [director of football] Txiki Begiristain at Manchester City and showing up in a deal and pleading poverty. But if you are [chairman] Tony Bloom at Brighton you can perhaps point to your balance sheet and say that you just don't have the money."

Being able to see the differing perspective and circumstances on both sides is key to predicting if a deal might be possible and, if so, at what price.

"That is the first fundamental thing," adds Hughes. "An ability to step outside of your world and look at the other party's pressures, problems and opportunities. Seeing the negotiation from their viewpoint changes everything."

A shortage of players in a particular position, a windfall from a exact sale or an increasingly restless fanbase, might spur a buying club to pay more.

Dick Law in a suit and tie at an Arsenal match Dick Law left his role as Arsenal's transfer chief in January 2018 and has since returned to his native United States

Conversely, similar options elsewhere on the market, a cautious owner, looming Financial Fair Play limits or emerging youth prospects may limit the chances of a bid being raised.

Either way, the idea of any player being worth a particular single amount is too simplistic.

What they are worth depends on who you are.

"At Toulouse, they are extremely data driven and every decision they make is analytics based," explains Comolli.

"We make their own valuation - they don't look at markets, they don't look at websites or whatever.

"Sometimes they will pay more for a player, compared to how they are valued by the market generally, because they know what value they will bring for us specifically."

Start the dance

You've identified a target. You've done your reconnaissance on their current club. The question is now how to start the dance.

As Law found out, pitch an offer too low and it can be used against you.

In the same summer as Arsenal's failed attempt to sign Suarez, Everton described a £28m joint-bid from Manchester United for Marouane Fellaini and Leighton Baines as "derisory and insulting".

Crystal Palace opted for "embarrassing" as their description of Arsenal's £40m offer for Wilfried Zaha in 2019. external-link

"Sometimes clubs genuinely feel they are being disrespected, sometimes it is a statement for the fans and the press," says Comolli.

"We try to find the right balance between not upsetting people and not showing their hand too early at the same time. It is not easy and sometimes I make an offer way below what a club is looking for and they pull out.

"In that case I might use the player's agent as a go-between to keep the dialogue going. It works most of the time - sometimes it doesn't."

Hughes believes clubs too often do the opposite though - paying over the odds for a player with an overly-generous opening offer.

"We encourage clubs to be bolder in general," he says. "Sometimes things fall apart because you go too low, but far more common is for people to walk away from a negotiation thinking that the other party has accepted too easily."

Law has been a beneficiary of such a misjudgement.

"In summer 2014, [former Arsenal chief executive] Ivan [Gazidis] and I walked into a room in Barcelona to meet Barcelona officials to talk about Alexis Sanchez. They said a price and it was cheaper than they expected to pay," he recalls.

"Did they accept that price? Of course they didn't, they tried to knock them down further!"

Sanchez, fresh from an impressive World Cup campaign with Chile, signed for £35m.

It isn't just the substance of a bid that can cause offence, but the style of an approach.

Law was working for Arsenal, albeit in South America, in January 2005 when Ashley Cole, the club's left-back, met with Jose Mourinho and Peter Kenyon, Chelsea's manager and chief executive, in the Royal Park Hotel in central London. external-link News of the gathering soon found its way into the press.

"What is important - regardless of how you acquire information or the conversations you may or may not have, or should or should not have - is to be respectful of the other club. That is critical," Law adds.

"I think what was so striking about the Cole deal was simply the blatant, in-your-face nature of it.

Ashley Cole and Jose Mourinho pose together Ashley Cole eventually arrived at Stamford Bridge from Arsenal in September 2006 in a deal that took fellow defender William Gallas and £5m in the opposite direction

"If you go to a hotel near Hyde Park, in the middle of London and you bring in your manager, who is a high-profile public figure… I just took it as a lack of respect for Arsenal, and if you don't challenge that, what is next?"

Relations between the clubs deteriorated and Chelsea, Cole and Mourinho were all fined. But, 18 months on from the not-so-secret meeting, a deal was done to take Cole to Stamford Bridge.

There is theoretically another option.

Why not dispense with all plotting, low-balling and back-and-forth? Is it possible to enter negotiations with a first, best and final offer, a take-it-or-leave figure that cuts out the nonsense?

In theory, it should be. But transfer business is practised by humans, with quirks and expectations to be satisfied, in a long-established culture.

"The whole point of opening low is so that you move from it," says Hughes. "It is the act of moving which gives the other side a sense of achievement - you want them to feel that they got the best deal they could."

Find the power

One of the reasons a transfer deal can drag across a whole summer is the number of parties involved.

It may be presented as a simple transaction, but aligning different elements is key; get one wrong and even an apparently done deal can disintegrate.

"What they are talking about is three sets of negotiations: club to club, the player transaction and the agent transaction," reveals Law.

"They are usually prioritised in that order, but sometimes they aren't.

"Sometimes it is the agent you need to get right, sometimes it is a player conversation that you need to get right."

Finding the "power behind the throne", as Hughes describes it, can be a complex business. Kylian Mbappe's inner circle has been subject to intense scrutiny as the France striker looks to force an exit from Paris St-Germain.

His agent and mother Fayza Lamari, his lawyer Delphine Verheyden, PSG's Football Advisor Luis Campos and representatives Christophe Henrotay and Kia Joorabchian - who have previously been instrumental in deals involving Real Madrid - have all been cited as potentially key figures in unlocking a move to the Bernabeu. external-link

Money is the fix-all grease for any cog in a deal, but occasionally less-wealthy clubs can find other trump cards to play.

Toulouse, promoted from the second tier in 2021-22, finished 13th in Ligue 1 last season, outperforming their budget - only the 18th-biggest in the division.

"We spend a vast amount of time talking to the player, his family, his partner, his parents to feel if he is a good culture fit for us," says Comolli.

Damien Comolli poses with the French Cup as Toulouse players celebrate behind him Toulouse, newly promoted to the French top flight last season, won the French Cup - the first major title in their 53-year history - with a 5-1 win over Nantes in April

"We show them how they play and how, with the data, their playing style and abilities fit with ours. It is their due diligence, but the consequence is that the player feels charmed. It is a very strong convincing tool for any player."

Law's deals involved bigger names and numbers, but the process at Arsenal was similar.

"The first priority in a pitch to a player would be the realistic chances the club has to win a title - every good player wants to win a title," he says.

"Then it comes down to the player's exam of the squad, particularly the people in his position.

"I also had the enormous advantage of having Arsene Wenger there. Players like stability, a carousel of coaches is a big issue for them.

"And location is important - the new stadium was a big plus and London was a big plus.

"I frequently told Brazilian players if they want to play in the rain, go to Manchester!"

Finding out which aspect of a move is important to a player can be straightforward. Other times, less so.

"It is a business about human beings," says Law. "If you don't like people or get on with them, it is a tough business. And if you can't read between the lines it is very difficult to get good deals done.

"There are different dynamics to every deal. Take Granit Xhaka. I sat down with him over lunch and straight away you could tell he was a great guy, you just felt it.

"He was a serious, committed professional. He wasn't joking around - they were there to have a serious lunch about the next phase of his career.

"Conversely I have sat down with players, who are so awkward socially it is hard to have any sort of conversation at all."

Alternatives and illusions

In 1981, with the Cold War dangerously close to turning hot, Harvard professor Roger Fisher suggested implanting the United States' nuclear codes within a volunteer.

It meant the country's president, having to kill an unfortunate innocent to retrieve them, would only be able to press launch having confronted the consequences of doing so.

The same year, in a seminal negotiation book Getting to Yes, he came up with an idea that has lasted longer: Batna or the 'best alternative to a negotiated agreement'.

"It is one of the things they always say - if you can walk away from a deal, it improves your power," says Hughes.

"We try to be very disciplined," adds Comolli of Toulouse's approach to negotiations for targets.

"We have a 'hard stop' where they won't go further. The upside of analytics is that you draw on a bigger pool than any scouting network. Their data covers 42,000 players. Sometimes they will have 20 targets for one position.

"If they are being priced out of a deal or the other club is difficult to deal with, they have no problem at all moving on to the next player on the list.

Damien Comolli with Gareth Bale and Darren Bent Damian Comolli, the club's then director of football, jokes with new Tottenham signings Gareth Bale and Darren Bent in July 2007

"When I came to Toulouse, I was absolutely desperate to go away from a situation where everyone at a club - the scouts, the manager - tell you it can only be that one player. That is the worst possible position to be in - you are being held to ransom, you have no leverage in the negotiation.

"I use the fact I have other options on a regular basis, and I am not bluffing, it is a reality. I don't use it in a way of banging the table and slamming the door. I am very calm and realistic. I say, 'if you don't want to do the deal that is fine, no problem, I will move to the next one and they stay friends'."

The selling club can do something similar, however. If negotiations hit a sticky point, news of rival interest - whether real or fictional - can add impetus to find a deal.

Liverpool - one of Comolli's former clubs - have had three bids turned down by Southampton for midfielder Romeo Lavia this summer.

In the wake of Liverpool's second unsuccessful approach, reports linking Lavia with Manchester United emerged. external-link

At the same time though, Liverpool themselves were linked with a raft of other defensive midfield options, including Fluminense's Andre, Crystal Palace's Cheick Doucoure and Manchester City's Kalvin Phillips. external-link

"It is such a competitive industry, sometimes that is all they have to do," says Hughes. "If you drop in the name of an arch-rival, values can suddenly go up, urgency can increase.

"Even if it is not done in the press, it can be dropped into conversation at a high level. Let's face it, they all do it - clubs, agents, players, every party involved - if it suits their purpose."

Establish a reputation

"Ain't football changed?" remarked an incredulous Russell Brand on TalkSPORT last month. external-link

"When I was a kid no-one knew stuff about chairmen and negotiators. I didn't know about [former chairman] Terry Brown or whoever it is at West Ham.

"Why do I know that [Tottenham chairman] Daniel Levy is hard to negotiate with? It's weird that they all know that kind of thing."

Weird, but inevitable.

As scrutiny on transfer activity has increased over the past 20 years, how clubs - and the individuals that represent them - have acted in the past affects how others view them.

"In negotiation, perception is everything and everything you do leaves a legacy," adds Hughes. "It is a huge thing for clubs to establish their reputation for how they do deals."

For Law, there was a deal that, by breaking Arsenal's transfer record by more than £27m after a period of relative frugality, marked a clear watershed.

"We signed Mesut Ozil in September 2013 and arguably, for that era, it was an expensive deal," he says.

"It set a benchmark, a new parameter. Arsenal were willing to pay £45m-£50m for a player."

From then on, other clubs came into negotiations with their expectations altered.

In the same way, Law had his own preconceptions about what doing business with a particular club or person would involve.

"If you do your homework, you know who you are dealing with," he adds.

"Daniel Levy is one of the consummate negotiators in the business, I have the utmost respect for him.

Marina Granovskaia poses with new Chelsea signing Jorginho and a club shirt Marina Granovskaia (right) spent eight years as Chelsea chief executive, overseeing the club's transfer business, before leaving in summer 2022

"[Former chief executive] Marina Granovskaia at Chelsea - even though there was very much the sense of an open chequebook, I always sensed she drove a hard bargain.

"And when I dealt with [chief executive] Sergei Palkin at Shakhtar Donetsk over the sale of Eduardo, I found him a hard negotiator."

The prospect of getting into negotiations with the most tenacious executives may be factored upon how clubs evaluate incoming bids and possible approaches of their own.

Act fast, think clear

Despite bringing in a record £105m via the sale of midfielder Declan Rice, West Ham, while closing in on Manchester United's Harry Maguire and Southampton's James Ward-Prowse, are still to finalise a major signing this summer.

Differences of opinion between manager David Moyes and director of football Tim Steidten are believed to be behind their slow business.

Both Law and Comolli agree that small, agile and aligned groups of decision-makers are vital in the race to secure talent.

"For me, the fewer number of people involved in the decision-making, the greater the chance of successful transfer business," says Law.

"I think there is a tendency at a lot of clubs to get a lot of opinions in the room but, if you look at the most successful clubs, how many opinions are there that count?

"At Chelsea during Roman Abramovich's ownership, how many were there that really mattered? At Man City, I get the impression it is just Begiristain, [chief executive] Ferran Soriano and Pep Guardiola. When Leicester City won the title, it was [director of football] Jon Rudkin, a couple more people and that was it.

"Not to throw a stone at Manchester United, but I always thought the problem there was too many cooks in the kitchen."

"After getting a player hooked into the project, I would say the second most important thing is speed," says Comolli.

"We have short decision-making chain. It is a strategy committee that consists of the head of data, head of strategy and culture, head of recruitment and myself.

"Once they decide to go it is a five-minute conversation or a text to the owners."

For Comolli, there is an important caveat though. Selinay Gurgenc - the head of strategy and culture - has a duty to disagree. She has been tasked with challenging 'groupthink' external-link - where small teams of decision-makers or Comolli himself blunder into irrational decisions - over transfers.

"When you are young, you are inclined to think you know everything, that you are the best thing since sliced bread," adds Comolli. "You tend not to listen, but now I have made the conscious decision to surround myself with people who will ask, 'what the hell are you doing?'.

"That helps a lot to keep calm, make the right decision and let the other clubs make the mistakes."

We are entering the time when more mistakes are made.

The transfer window closes in England, Scotland and most of Europe on 1 September. As it approaches, the stakes rise and transfer business acquires a unique irrationality.

"In the rest of the business world, you might have Christmas or Easter - and there are hard deadlines around that - but most of the time if someone tries to draw a line in the sand and impose a deadline, it doesn't actually matter," explains Hughes.

"If a deal is actually finalised the week after, so what? Deadlines are often arbitrary.

"In football though, where it is set by a third party, it is absolute and very, very real. People will use it really effectively to suit their purpose, bringing a buying party right up to it by stalling."

Bayern Munich seem set to live that truth.

They reportedly gave Tottenham a deadline of Friday, 4 August to accept a third and, they said, final £86m bid to sell them Harry Kane. The England captain himself is said to want any deal sorted before Tottenham's first Premier League game against Brentford on Sunday. external-link

Spurs chairman Levy ignored the first ultimatum and is unlikely to be bounced into a deal by the second.

Daniel Levy wearing a suit and a Tottenham crest lapel badge Tottenham's Daniel Levy faces a big decision over the future of captain Harry Kane, whose contract will expire in summer 2024

Comolli worked with Levy for three years and says his ability to find the words and numbers to convince a player to extend their contract is unrivalled.

"Daniel Levy is the master at it, he is incredible," adds Comolli. "He has mastered that science of approaching the player at the right time, with the right amount of money.

"I have grown up a lot though in keeping my distance from the madness or irrationality of the last few days of the transfer window. They try to avoid deals on deadline day."

There will be plenty of clubs though who won't.

They will be playing their hands late into the evening on 1 September, where the stakes are high, the bluffs are big and money, mistakes and reputations are made.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug