Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

Wo erhalte ich vollständige Informationen über 4A0-103?

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CAT exam books 2023: Begin your preparations for all subjects (August, 2023)

The Common Admission Test (CAT) is a highly competitive exam taken by students pursuing management degrees in reputed B-schools in India. The exam tests the aptitude of candidates in various subjects including Quantitative Ability (QA), Data Interpretation and Logical Reasoning (DILR), and Verbal Ability and reading Comprehension (VARC). The 2023 CAT exam books play a crucial role in preparing you for the exam. It is important to choose the right books that cover the syllabus comprehensively and provide a variety of practice questions and mock tests. The 2023 CAT exam books are designed to provide students with a deep understanding of the concepts, tips, and tricks to solve the questions, and strategies for efficient time management during the exam. In addition to the traditional textbooks, various online resources such as video lectures and interactive quizzes are also available to supplement students' preparation.Starting preparation early gives students an advantage in covering the extensive curriculum and identifying their strengths and weaknesses. This helps them develop a learning plan and focus on improving their weaker areas. In conclusion, choosing the right 2023 CAT exam books and starting preparation early can greatly Excellerate a student's chances of passing the exam and gaining admission to their desired B-School.Here’s a list of some of the best CAT exam books for 2023:

How to Prepare for the CAT (Set Of 4 Books) By Arun Sharma And Meenakshi Upadhyay

The How to Prepare for the CAT (Common Admission Test) book set by Arun Sharma and Meenakshi Upadhyay is a comprehensive guide to help aspiring MBA candidates prepare for the challenging CAT exam. The set contains four books covering various aspects of the CAT exam, including quantitative skills, data interpretation and logical reasoning, language skills and reading comprehension, and finally the entire CAT exam syllabus. The books are written in simple language and offer practical tips and techniques to help students Excellerate their performance. With this set of books, candidates can gain a deeper understanding of the CAT exam and increase their chances of success.

Oswaal CAT 25 Years' Chapter-wise and Topic-wise Solved Papers Question Bank

Oswaal CAT 25 Years' Chapter-wise and Topic-wise Solved Papers dumps questions 1990-2008, 2017-2022 VARC, DILR & QA is an essential study material for MBA aspirants preparing for the CAT exam. This comprehensive dumps questions contains solved papers from the last 25 years of the CAT exam, chapter-wise and topic-wise, covering all three sections of the CAT exam: VARC, DILR, and QA. The book includes detailed solutions and explanations for each question to help students understand the concepts and Excellerate their problem-solving skills. This dumps questions is an excellent resource for candidates who want to strengthen their CAT preparation and increase their chances of success in the upcoming 2023 exam.

CAT 2023: Data Interpretation & Logical Reasoning by Gautam Puri

The book "CAT 2023: Data Interpretation & Logical Reasoning" by Gautam Puri is an excellent resource for MBA aspirants preparing for the CAT exam. This book comprehensively covers the data interpretation and logical reasoning sections of the CAT exam, with an emphasis on improving problem-solving skills. The book contains various practice problems with solutions for each question to help students understand the concepts and Excellerate their problem-solving skills. The book also includes tips and techniques to help students solve complex problems quickly and effectively. With this book, candidates can develop a solid foundation in data interpretation and logical thinking and increase their chances of success in the CAT exam.

CAT Books by Arun Sharma 2023 ( Set of 4 Books )

Arun Sharma's CAT Books Three books in a package called 2023 are designed to help MBA aspirants prepare for the CAT exam. The package contains works on logical reasoning, data interpretation, verbal ability and quantitative aptitude. These books contain all the information needed to pass the CAT exam, as well as useful advice and techniques to Excellerate problem-solving skills. The package also includes CAT practice exams on Pull Marks, which supply students hands-on experience with the test. With the help of these books, candidates can build a solid foundation and learn the ideas needed to pass the 2023 CAT exam.

9 Previous Year CAT QA, DILR & VARC Topic-wise Solved Papers set of 3 Books

For MBA students preparing for the CAT exam, this CAT 2023 Complete Test Preparation Kit is a complete package. All three CAT test sections - Quantitative Aptitude, Data Interpretation & Logical Reasoning, and Verbal Ability & reading Comprehension - are covered in the three books in this package. Each syllabu is covered in detail in the books, and they also include practice problems and simulated exams to help students Excellerate their conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. The package also provides students with access to previous year solved papers, giving them a comprehensive educational experience. With the help of this package, candidates can prepare efficiently and increase their success rate in the CAT exam.

28 Years CAT QA, DILR & VARC Topic-wise Solved Papers by Shipra Agarwal Deepak Agarwal

For MBA candidates preparing for the CAT exam, the book package "28 Years CAT QA, DILR & VARC Topic-wise Solved Papers" by Shipra Agarwal and Deepak Agarwal is an excellent resource. The package consists of three books covering the CAT exam papers of the last 28 years for Quantitative Aptitude, Data Interpretation & Logical Reasoning, and Verbal Ability & reading Comprehension, syllabu by syllabu and section by section. With detailed solutions and explanations of the solved problems, students can better understand the ideas and Excellerate their problem-solving skills. With the help of this book, candidates can become more familiar with the CAT exam format, boost their confidence, and pass the CAT exam with flying colors.

How to Prepare for VERBAL ABILITY & reading COMPREHENSION for CAT By McGraw Hill

The comprehensive book, How to Prepare for Verbal Ability and reading Comprehension for CAT, by Arun Sharma and Meenakshi Upadhyay, is designed to help MBA students prepare for the Verbal Ability and reading Comprehension components of the CAT test. The book provides a thorough explanation of the ideas along with useful advice and techniques to Excellerate reading and comprehension skills. To Excellerate comprehension of the material and enhance performance, the book also includes practice problems and mock exams. With the help of this book, candidates can Excellerate their vocabulary, gain strong speaking skills, and perform well in the Verbal Ability and reading Comprehension sections of the CAT exam.

CAT 2023: MBA Entrance Exam- 12 Solved Topic-wise Tests by EduGorilla Prep Experts

For MBA students preparing for the CAT test, the book "CAT 2023: MBA Entrance exam - 12 Solved Topic-wise Tests" by EduGorilla Prep Experts is an excellent resource. The book contains 12 topic-specific tests with answers that cover verbal skills, reading comprehension, quantitative skills, and data interpretation. These tests are designed to help students assess their level of preparation, identify their strengths and weaknesses, and develop their problem-solving skills. The book also provides free access to online exams that allow students to practice and evaluate their performance in an environment similar to a CAT exam. Candidates can Excellerate their chances of passing the CAT exam by preparing well for it with the help of this book.FAQ's: Books for CAT exam 2023
  • How can I choose books for CAT preparation?You need to choose the books based on the recommendations of professionals if you want to choose the best books for CAT preparation. Also, you should supply preference to the latest edition of the book as it contains questions and study guides based on the latest changes in the syllabus.
  • Can I prepare for the CAT exam using only books, or should I use other resources as well?While books are excellent learning tools, you should round out your CAT exam preparation with other materials. Online forums, question banks from previous years, and practice exams can be used to develop a thorough and well-rounded exam preparation strategy. These resources provide opportunities for exam simulation, on-site practice, peer learning, and clarification of doubts.
  • Are there books for the CAT exam with solved exam questions from previous years?Yes, there are several books that contain CAT exam questions from previous years with detailed solutions.
  • DISCLAIMER: The Times of India's journalists were not involved in the production of this article. The product prices mentioned in the article are subject to change with offers given by Amazon.

    Bihar Teacher Syllabus 2023: Syllabus PDF Download, exam Pattern, and More

    Bihar Teacher Syllabus 2023: BPSC released the notification of recruitment of 170785 Primary, PGT and TGT posts on the official website @bpsc.bih.nic.in.  obtain BPSC Bihar Teacher Syllabus Pdf and exam Pattern for Primary, Secondary, and Senior-Secondary 

    Bihar Teacher Syllabus 2023: The Bihar Public Service Commission has released the exam pattern of the Bihar Teacher syllabus for primary, secondary, and senior-secondary posts. As the Bihar Teacher exam is approaching, candidates must commence their preparation immediately.

    With this, they should check the Bihar Teacher syllabus and exam pattern to get insights into the topics, exam format, question paper structure, etc. and maximise their qualifying chances. Going by the past trend and analysis, it is found that the overall questions asked in the Bihar teacher exam were moderately difficult. Hence, one can predict questions to be moderately difficult in the upcoming exam.

    In this article, they have shared the Bihar Teacher syllabus PDF for all the posts along with the exam pattern, syllabus, and best books for the preparation.

    Career Counseling Bihar Teacher Syllabus 2023

    The Education Department of Bihar is going to conduct the Bihar Teacher 2023 exam. Check the detailed overview of the Bihar Teacher Syllabus 2023 in the table given below:

    Bihar Teacher Syllabus 2023 Overview

    Conducting Body

    BPSC

    Exam Name

    Bihar Teacher 2023 exam

    Category

    Bihar Teacher Syllabus and exam Pattern

    Posts

    Primary, Secondary, and Senior Secondary Teachers 

    BPSC Bihar Teacher Syllabus 2023 Release Status

    Released

    Job Location

    Bihar

    Bihar Teacher Syllabus 2033 PDF

    Candidates must obtain the Bihar Teacher Syllabus PDF for primary, secondary, and senior secondary posts to cover all the aspects of the exam. Check the section-wise syllabus for Bihar teacher recruitment 2023 shared below:

    Bihar Primary Teacher Syllabus

    The Bihar primary teacher syllabus is divided into two papers, i.e. Language Paper and General Studies. A total of 220 questions are asked for 220 marks in the exam. Check the subject-wise Bihar teacher syllabus for the primary level in the table shared below:

    Bihar Teacher Syllabus for Primary Level

    Paper

    Subject

    Bihar Primary Teacher Syllabus

    Paper 1

    Language Part I

    English language, which is mandatory for all.

    Vocabulary

    Grammar

    Noun 

    Pronoun

    Verb

    Adverb

    Reading Comprehension 

    Idioms and Phrases, etc

    Language Part II (Hindi language / Urdu language / Bengali language. Candidate can choose any one of the three languages)

    Hindi

    त्रुटि पहचान

    बुनियादी समझ और लेखन क्षमता, आदि।

    वर्तनी

    रिक्त स्थानों की पूर्ति करें (क्रिया, पूर्वसर्ग, लेख आदि का प्रयोग करके)

    शब्दावली

    वाक्य की बनावट

    व्याकरण

    विलोम शब्द

    वाक्य पूरा करना

    समानार्थी शब्द

    वाक्यांशों और शब्दों का मुहावरेदार उपयोग, आदि

    Paper 2

    Topic-wise General Studies Syllabus

    Elementary Mathematics

    Percentage 

    Profit and Loss

    Interest 

    Time and Work

    Ratio and Proportion

    Problems Based on Ages

    Number System

    Partnership 

    Speed Time and Distance

    Mixture and Alligations

    Average

    Algebra 

    Mensuration

    Geometry

    Mental ability test

    Analogies

    Letter and Symbol series

    Classification

    Blood Relation

    Number Series

    Ranking and Order

    Verbal Classification

    Coding and Decoding

    Direction Sense

    Statement and Conclusion

    Sitting Arrangement

    Syllogism

    Statement and Assumption, etc.

    General Awareness

    India and its Neighboring Countries

    Current Affairs

    Sports

    History

    Culture

    Geography

    Economic Science

    Policy

    Indian Constitution

    General Science

    Work, Energy, and Power

    Force and Laws of Motions

    Electromagnetic Waves 

    Heat

    Optics

    Gravitation

    Physical World & Measurement

    Atoms & Nuclei

    Currents

    Heat & Thermodynamics

    Electrostatics

    Structure of Atom

    Periodic Classification of Elements 

    Acids, Bases and Salts 

    Metal and Non-Metals

    States of Matter

    Plants 

    Animals 

    Skeleton System 

    Nervous System

    Digestive System 

    Vitamins and Minerals

    Social Science

    India and the Contemporary World

    Contemporary India

    Democratic Politics

    Understanding Economic Development, etc.

    Indian National Movements

    India on the Eve of British Conquest

    British Conquest of Bengal

    Mysore’s Resistance to the Company

    Expansion and Consolidation of British Power in India

    Causes of British Success in India

    Era of Militant Nationalism (1905-1909)

    Anglo-Maratha Struggle for Supremacy

    Extension of British Paramountcy through Administrative Policy

    Relations of British India with Neighboring Countries

    British India and the North-West Frontier

    Resistance against British Before 1857

    The Revolt of 1857: Causes, Events, Spread, Leaders

    First World War and Nationalist Response

    Beginning of Modern Nationalism in India

    Foundation of Indian National Congress

    Conquest of Sindh

    Conquest of Punjab

    First Phase of Revolutionary Activities (1907-1917)

    Emergence of Gandhi

    Non-Cooperation Movement and Khilafat Andolan

    Geography and Environment

    Solar System 

    Planets

    Earth 

    Continent 

    Volcano 

    Indian Geography 

    Mountains and Plateau

    Environment 

    Human Geography - People, Human Activities, etc.

    Bihar Secondary Teacher Syllabus 2023

    The Bihar secondary teacher syllabus is divided into two papers, i.e. Language Paper and Subject & General Studies. A total of 220 questions are asked for 220 marks in the exam. Check the subject-wise Bihar teacher syllabus for the secondary level in the table shared below:

    Bihar Teacher Syllabus for Secondary Level

    Paper

    Subject

    Bihar Secondary Teacher Syllabus

    Paper 1

    Language Part I

    English language, which is mandatory for all.

    Vocabulary

    Grammar

    Noun 

    Pronoun

    Verb

    Adverb

    Reading Comprehension 

    Idioms and Phrases, etc

    Language Part II (Hindi language / Urdu language / Bengali language. Candidate can choose any one of the three languages)

    Hindi

    त्रुटि पहचान

    बुनियादी समझ और लेखन क्षमता, आदि।

    वर्तनी

    रिक्त स्थानों की पूर्ति करें (क्रिया, पूर्वसर्ग, लेख आदि का प्रयोग करके)

    शब्दावली

    वाक्य की बनावट

    व्याकरण

    विलोम शब्द

    वाक्य पूरा करना

    समानार्थी शब्द

    वाक्यांशों और शब्दों का मुहावरेदार उपयोग, आदि

    Paper 2- Subject and General Topics

    Part I- Any one of the following subjects

    Hindi

    Bengali

    Urdu

    Maithili

    Sanskrit

    Bhojpuri

    Arabic

    Persian

    English

    Science

    Mathematics & Social Science

    (The questions of the subject paper will be asked from NCERT)

    Topic-wise General Studies Syllabus (Part II)

    Elementary Mathematics

    Percentage 

    Profit and Loss

    Interest 

    Time and Work

    Ratio and Proportion

    Problems Based on Ages

    Number System

    Partnership 

    Speed Time and Distance

    Mixture and Alligations

    Average

    Algebra 

    Mensuration

    Geometry

    General Awareness

    India and its Neighboring Countries

    Current Affairs

    Sports

    History

    Culture

    Geography

    Economic Science

    Policy

    Indian Constitution

    General Science

    Work, Energy, and Power

    Force and Laws of Motions

    Electromagnetic Waves 

    Heat

    Optics

    Gravitation

    Physical World & Measurement

    Atoms & Nuclei

    Currents

    Heat & Thermodynamics

    Electrostatics

    Structure of Atom

    Periodic Classification of Elements 

    Acids, Bases and Salts 

    Metal and Non-Metals

    States of Matter

    Plants 

    Animals 

    Skeleton System 

    Nervous System

    Digestive System 

    Vitamins and Minerals

    Indian National Movements

    India on the Eve of British Conquest

    British Conquest of Bengal

    Mysore’s Resistance to the Company

    Expansion and Consolidation of British Power in India

    Causes of British Success in India

    Era of Militant Nationalism (1905-1909)

    Anglo-Maratha Struggle for Supremacy

    Extension of British Paramountcy through Administrative Policy

    Relations of British India with Neighboring Countries

    British India and the North-West Frontier

    Resistance against British Before 1857

    The Revolt of 1857: Causes, Events, Spread, Leaders

    First World War and Nationalist Response

    Beginning of Modern Nationalism in India

    Foundation of Indian National Congress

    Conquest of Sindh

    Conquest of Punjab

    First Phase of Revolutionary Activities (1907-1917)

    Emergence of Gandhi

    Non-Cooperation Movement and Khilafat Andolan

    Geography

    Solar System 

    Planets

    Earth 

    Continent 

    Volcano 

    Indian Geography 

    Mountains and Plateau

    Environment 

    Human Geography - People, Human Activities, etc.

    Bihar Senior Secondary Teacher PGT Syllabus 2023

    Bihar Senior Secondary Teacher syllabus is divided into two papers, i.e. Language Paper and Subject & General Studies. A total of 220 questions are asked for 220 marks in the exam. Check the subject-wise Bihar teacher syllabus for the senior secondary level in the table shared below:

    Bihar Teacher Syllabus for Senior Secondary Level

    Paper

    Subject

    Bihar Senior Secondary Teacher Syllabus

    Paper 1

    Language Part I

    English language, which is mandatory for all.

    Vocabulary

    Grammar

    Noun 

    Pronoun

    Verb

    Adverb

    Reading Comprehension 

    Idioms and Phrases, etc

    Language Part II (Hindi language / Urdu language / Bengali language. Candidate can choose any one of the three languages)

    Hindi

    त्रुटि पहचान

    बुनियादी समझ और लेखन क्षमता, आदि।

    वर्तनी

    रिक्त स्थानों की पूर्ति करें (क्रिया, पूर्वसर्ग, लेख आदि का प्रयोग करके)

    शब्दावली

    वाक्य की बनावट

    व्याकरण

    विलोम शब्द

    वाक्य पूरा करना

    समानार्थी शब्द

    वाक्यांशों और शब्दों का मुहावरेदार उपयोग, आदि

    Paper 2- Subject and General Topics

    Part I- Any one of the following subjects

    Hindi

    Bengali

    Urdu

    Maithili

    Sanskrit

    Bhojpuri

    Arabic

    Persian

    English

    Science

    Mathematics & Social Science

    (The questions of the subject paper will be asked from NCERT)

    Topic-wise General Studies Syllabus (Part II)

    Elementary Mathematics

    Percentage 

    Profit and Loss

    Interest 

    Time and Work

    Ratio and Proportion

    Problems Based on Ages

    Number System

    Partnership 

    Speed Time and Distance

    Mixture and Alligations

    Average

    Algebra 

    Mensuration

    Geometry

    General Awareness

    India and its Neighboring Countries

    Current Affairs

    Sports

    History

    Culture

    Geography

    Economic Science

    Policy

    Indian Constitution

    General Science

    Physics

    Work, Energy, and Power

    Force and Laws of Motions

    Electromagnetic Waves 

    Heat

    Optics

    Gravitation

    Physical World & Measurement

    Atoms & Nuclei

    Currents

    Heat & Thermodynamics

    Electrostatics

    Chemistry

    Structure of Atom

    Periodic Classification of Elements 

    Acids, Bases and Salts 

    Metal and Non-Metals

    States of Matter

    Biology

    Plants 

    Animals 

    Skeleton System 

    Nervous System

    Digestive System 

    Vitamins and Minerals

    Indian National Movements

    India on the Eve of British Conquest

    British Conquest of Bengal

    Mysore’s Resistance to the Company

    Expansion and Consolidation of British Power in India

    Causes of British Success in India

    Era of Militant Nationalism (1905-1909)

    Anglo-Maratha Struggle for Supremacy

    Extension of British Paramountcy through Administrative Policy

    Relations of British India with Neighboring Countries

    British India and the North-West Frontier

    Resistance against British Before 1857

    The Revolt of 1857: Causes, Events, Spread, Leaders

    First World War and Nationalist Response

    Beginning of Modern Nationalism in India

    Foundation of Indian National Congress

    Conquest of Sindh

    Conquest of Punjab

    First Phase of Revolutionary Activities (1907-1917)

    Emergence of Gandhi

    Non-Cooperation Movement and Khilafat Andolan

    Geography

    Solar System 

    Planets

    Earth 

    Continent 

    Volcano 

    Indian Geography 

    Mountains and Plateau

    Environment 

    Human Geography - People, Human Activities, etc.

    Weightage Bihar Teacher Syllabus 2023

    The Bihar Teacher exam Pattern for primary, secondary, and senior secondary teachers have been released by the BPSC. Check the Bihar Shikshak exam pattern to understand the exam format, number of sections, questions, marking scheme, etc followed by the commission.

    Bihar Primary Teacher PRT exam Pattern

    The Bihar primary teacher exam for PRT is divided into two papers i.e. Language Paper and General Studies. Check the official Bihar Primary Teacher PRT exam Pattern shared below.

    Paper

    Subject

    No. of Questions

    Duration

    Marks

    Paper 1

    Language

    (Qualifying)

    (Minimum 30%)

    100 (Part-I- 25 & Part-ll- 75)

    120 mins

    100 (Part-I- 25 & Part-ll- 75)

    Paper 2

    General Studies

    120

    120 mins

    120

    Total

    220 Questions

    4 Hours

    220 Marks

    Bihar Secondary Teacher TGT exam Pattern

    The Bihar secondary teacher exam for TGT is divided into two papers i.e. Language Paper and Subject & General Studies. Check the official Bihar Secondary Teacher TGT exam Pattern shared below.

    Paper Name

    Subject

    Number of Questions

    Total Marks

    Duration

    Paper 1

    Language (Qualifying)

    100 (Part I- 25, Part II- 75)

    100 (Part I- 25, Part II- 75)

    2 hours

    Paper 2

    Subject & General Studies

    120 (Part I- 80, Part II- 40)

    120 (Part I- 80, Part II- 40)

    2 hours

    Bihar Senior Secondary Teacher PGT exam Pattern

    The Bihar Senior Secondary Teacher exam for PGT comprises two papers i.e. Language Paper and Subject & General Studies. Check the official Bihar Senior Secondary Teacher PGT exam Pattern shared below.

    Paper Name

    Subject

    Number of Questions

    Total Marks

    Duration

    Paper 1

    Language (Qualifying)

    100 (Part I- 25, Part II- 75)

    100 (Part I- 25, Part II- 75)

    2 hours

    Paper 2

    Subject & General Studies

    120 (Part I- 80, Part II- 40)

    120 (Part I- 80, Part II- 40)

    2 hours

    How to Prepare Bihar Teacher 2023 Syllabus?

    The Bihar Teacher exam is one of the most difficult recruitment exams in the nation. More than thousands of aspirants appear for this teaching exam every year. However, not many applicants succeed in the exam due to the large number of candidates competing against limited vacancies. Hence, it is advisable to follow the latest Bihar teacher syllabus and prioritize the syllabus accordingly. Have a look at Bihar teacher preparation tips to crack the written exam shared below:

    Go through the Bihar teacher syllabus before beginning your exam preparation and then create a list of important topics.

    Read newspapers and current affairs magazines regularly to stay updated with all the events happening around the world.

    Choose reliable sources and study material for the preparation to get a strong grip on the concepts of the entire syllabus.

    Attempt the previous year's question paper and mock tests to analyse your strong and weak points and concentrate on the areas that require improvements.

    Revise all the syllabus regularly to avoid forgetting any important concepts before the exam.

    Best Books for Bihar Teacher Syllabus 2023

    Candidates should get their hands on the best Bihar Teacher books for the preparation of the written exam. The right books will help them to study all the syllabus prescribed in the Bihar teacher syllabus. The expert-recommended books for the Bihar primary teacher written exam are as follows:

    Bihar Primary Teacher exam Guide by Arihant Experts

    Bihar Primary Teacher exam (Hindi Edition) by Upkar Publication

    Bihar Primary Teacher Recruitment exam by RPH Editorial Board

    Bihar Primary Teacher exam Solved Papers by RPH Editorial Board

    Bihar Primary Teacher Practice Papers by V.V.K Subburaj

    Also Read Related Articles,


     


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug