Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Student Resources

Guide for Service Animals in Training on Campus

A Service Animal in Training (SAIT) is any animal in the process of undergoing training to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual or other mental disability.  Service animals in training must be registered with the University prior to arriving on campus.  Students who misrepresent an animal as a service animal in training or fail to register their service animal in training may be in violation of UAB’s Student Conduct Code. Students who utilize service animals are not required to register their service animal but are encouraged to do so.

Service animals in training should meet the following criteria:

  • be housebroken
  • be in training for a specific task (this excludes socialization, basic commands, and obedience training) for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability
  • Prior to bringing the animal on campus, the handler is responsible for: 

  • registering the animal with the University
  • providing health information from a Licensed Veterinarian including shot records, age, and overall physical condition
  • identifying an alternate handler should the primary handler be unable to care for the animal
  • providing an anticipated length of training/length of time animal will be on campus
  • Once on campus, the handler’s responsibilities include: 

  • must have animals under direct physical control at all times
  • prohibited from transferring control to another person
  • ensure the animal is healthy, clean and in a safe environment
  • proper clean-up, removal of waste
  • liable for damage, injury and related costs
  • must be and stay in compliance with state regulation (health, vaccination and care)
  • notify the university once the SAIT has completed training and is no longer on campus
  • In the event the handler is not fulfilling the above responsibilities, the animal may be removed from campus.  Should the handler or alternate handler be unable to care for the animal, the University reserves the right to board the animal at the handler’s expense. 

    How to Register a Service Animal in Training

    To register and request approval for a service animal in training on the campus of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, students must:

  •   Complete the following service animal in training application materials:
  •   Scan and email all application materials to SAITraining@uab.edu
  •   Upon submission, the application will be reviewed to determine if the animal meets the criteria. Students will be notified via email with the determination. 
  • For any questions regarding this process, please contact UAB Student Affairs at (205) 934-8465 or SAITraining@uab.edu. 


    USVSD Service Dog Club of UAB is a Registered Student Organization devoted to training service dogs that will work for veterans with PTSD and mobility limitations.  More information on the organization is available through Engage.

    Additional information on training service animals is available through Assistance Dogs International.

    Why Alcatel-Lucent (ALU) Stock Hit a One-Year Low Today

    No result found, try new keyword!Shares of Alcatel-Lucent (ALU) hit a one-year low Thursday as the IP and cloud networking provider suffered from a continuing decline in the telecommunications sector. Shares of Alcatel-Lucent ...

    Zoom's terms of service changes spark worries over AI uses. Here's what to know.

    When Zoom announced an update to its terms of service earlier this week that appeared to provide access to users' data for AI training, privacy advocates and customers rang the alarm.

    "Zoom's [terms of service] now demand that they use AI to train on audio, face and facial movements, even private conversations without recourse, unconditionally and irrevocably," scientist Bryan Jones said in a tweet, "Opting out is not an option."

    The backlash prompted Zoom to clarify its service terms in a blog post on Monday, in which it promised not to "use audio, video, or chat content for training their models without customer consent." 

    However, privacy experts warn that while that promise is now codified in Zoom's user agreement, it doesn't prevent the company from using customer data to train AI. As a result, many users are confused about how much of their data is being used and how to protect their privacy during digital meet-ups. 

    Zoom did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

    Biden, leading tech companies announce voluntary safeguards on A.I. 03:27 Can Zoom access users' video calls to train AI? 

     Zoom can use customers' video calls and chat transcripts to train AI, as long as it has users' consent. 

    However, if a meeting host agrees to share data with Zoom, everybody participating in the meeting must share their data during that call. 

    This means participants who want their information to remain private must leave the Zoom call if their host consented to data-sharing. To be sure, this could be a problem for workers whose employers require them to attend Zoom sessions. 

    "If the administrator consents and it's your boss at your work who requires you to use Zoom, how is that really consent?" Katharine Trendacosta, director of policy and advocacy at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, told the Associated Press.

    What kind of data can Zoom collect?

    There are two types of data Zoom can collect: "service-generated data" such as user locations and the features customers use to interact with the service, and "customer content," or the data created by users themselves, such as audio or chat transcripts.

    In its blog post, Zoom said the company considers service-generated data "to be their data," and experts confirm this language would allow the company to use such data for AI training without obtaining additional consent.

    Service-generated data may be used for "for the purpose of … machine learning or artificial intelligence (including for the purposes of training and tuning of algorithms and models,"  according to Zoom's terms of service. 

    As for customer content, Zoom may also use the data "for the purpose" of machine learning, the same agreement shows. 

    "Godfather of artificial intelligence" talks impact and potential of new AI 08:17 What is Zoom doing with AI? 

    In its blog post, Zoom said it will use customer data to train artificial intelligence for AI-powered features, such as automated meeting summaries for customers.

    However, it's unclear if the company is working on other consumer-facing AI products or internal projects that will tap into customer data. 

    Zoom's terms of service agreement is "super broad," said Caitlin Seeley George, campaigns and managing director at Fight for the Future, told CBS MoneyWatch. In that way, the company could use certain types of customer data for any number of AI projects, she said.

    "[Zoom's] updated terms of service are very broad and could allow them to do more than summarize meetings, even if they aren't doing it yet," George said. 

    AI could steal information by listening to you type, study finds 04:34 How do I know if a meeting organizer is sharing data during their call? 

    If a meeting organizer decides to use a feature that requires user-generated content like call or chat transcripts to be shared with Zoom, the meeting's participants will receive an alert that an AI feature has been enabled and that their data could be shared for machine learning, the AP reported. 

    The app will then prompt participants to either proceed with the meeting or to leave.

    Zoom alternatives

    Privacy advocates like George recommend steering clear from Zoom until the company provides more details into how users will deliver their informed consent, what data will be collected and how it will be used. 

    Of course, there are other platforms Zoomers can use in the meantime to host video calls. 

    Signal, which has a strong privacy focus, promises not to "collect or store any sensitive information" and can be used to create chats and group calls for up to 40 people, its website shows. 

    Jitsi, a privacy-focused videoconferencing tool, can also host group calls. The open-sourced platform is free and offers unlimited time on video calls. 

    With reporting by the Associated Press.

    More from CBS News


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug