Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Sell Alert: 7 Communication Services Stocks to Dump ASAP

According to Morningstar, communication services companies are those “that provide communication services using fixed-line networks or those that provide wireless access and services.” Also within the space are firms “that provide Internet services such as access, navigation and Internet related software and services.”

Among the companies running into trouble in the communications services space are a number of social media websites, the owners of traditional TV networks, and also-ran streaming services. That’s because the competition in all three of those sectors is quite intense, while traditional TV networks are also coming under pressure from cord cutting.

This list includes companies that certainly fit in these categories. However, I’d also recommend staying away from companies oriented toward video games and the metaverse, as various macro headwinds and a reversion back toward the mean (from very hyped-up levels) could send the valuations of such stocks much lower.

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With all of that said, here are seven communication services stocks to sell.

Meta (META)

Meta Written On The Googles - Man Wearing Virtual Reality Goggles Inside A Metaverse. FTC investigating META.

Source: Aleem Zahid Khan / Shutterstock.com

The owner of Facebook has enjoyed a meteoric rise this year, with Meta (NASDAQ:META) stock soaring 165%. A combination of the company’s spending cutbacks, opportunities in artificial intelligence, and increased optimism about the U.S. economy were responsible for its surge.

But the social media company’s shares now have a forward price-earnings ratio of 26-times. I believe that this valuation largely prices in the company’s positive catalysts, especially when one considers the company faces tough competition from the likes of Roku (NASDAQ:ROKU), Snap (NYSE:SNAP), TikTok, Alphabet (NASDAQ:GOOG,NASDAQ:GOOGL) and even Amazon (NASDAQ:AMZN) for online ads.

Additionally, as I’ve noted in the past, the metaverse has been in existence for a few decades. Thus far, this sector hasn’t meaningfully impacted the lives of consumers or investors. Thus, I’m not very optimistic about the ability of the metaverse to become a positive needle mover for META stock.

Story continues

Snap (SNAP)

An apple iPhone showing the snapchat application alongside other snapchat logos. SNAP stock.

Source: Ink Drop / Shutterstock.com

For many years, I had been upbeat about Snap’s long-term outlook due to its ability to attract a high percentage of young users. But now, with the company posting dismal quarterly results even as the overall economy and advertising sector are rather strong, I think that I was probably overly optimistic about SNAP stock.

In the second quarter, Snap’s top line sank 3.6% versus the same period a year earlier, while its EBITDA, excluding certain items, fell $45.7 million to -$38.5 million. And for the current quarter, it predicted that its adjusted EBITDA would be -$50 million to -$100 million. On the top line for Q3, Snap provided guidance of a 0% to -5% year-over-year change.

Also noteworthy is that the company’s AI tool has not seemed to please Snapchat’s users, at least in the early days of its launch. According to TechCrunch, there was “a spike in negative reviews” of the app in the weeks following its launch.

Finally, like Meta, Snap faces a great deal of competition in the internet ad space, and its trailing price-sales ratio of 3.8-times is not particularly attractive.

Comcast (CMCSA)

Keeping NBC News on the Air Could Hamper Comcast Stock

Source: Shutterstock

Without a doubt, conventional TV is a contracting business, and that’s not good news for Comcast (NASDAQ:CMCSA), the owner of NBC Universal.

For evidence of how quickly conventional TV is shrinking, one needs to look no further than the performance of Disney’s (NYSE:DIS) Media and Entertainment Distribution unit, which is dominated by its conventional TV networks.

The unit’s revenue rose an anemic 3% versus the same quarter a year earlier, while its operating income sank 42% year-over-year. Additionally, Disney’s apparent desire to sell all or part of its conventional TV networks is indicative of how little growth and value conventional TV has at this point.

Meanwhile, competition is mounting for Comcast’s internet service provider business, as Verizon (NYSE:VZ) has entered the sector with very low selling prices and Starlink is becoming more popular.

Given all of these factors, CMCSA stock definitely belongs on this list of communication services stocks to sell.

Warner Bros. Discovery (WBD)

A close-up of the blue and yellow Warner Bros (WBD) sign.

Source: Ingus Kruklitis / Shutterstock.com

Like Comcast, Warner Bros. Discovery (NASDAQ:WBD) owns conventional TV networks in the form of many cable channels that are being undermined by the cord-cutting phenomenon. In the first quarter, the company’s revenue plunged 10% versus the same period a year earlier. This hasn’t been helped by the company’s also-ran streaming service that’s only poised to enter the black this year. Additionally, over the medium-term, the financial performance of the company’s assets are likely to be significantly hurt by the Hollywood strikes.

What’s more – at a time when movie box office receipts remain well below 2019 levels, Warner Bros.’ movie studio will be far from an outperforming asset overall. Yes, its Barbie movie will generate a significant amount of profits for the company in the short-term. However, that one hit is not going to prevent the movie studio from losing money over the long-term.

To top it all off, Warner Bros. Discovery’s balance sheet needs some work. The company currently has $46.4 billion of net debt. That’s a great deal of debt with which the company (and investors) have to contend with.

Roblox (RBLX)

Roblox sign logo at headquarters. RBLX stock

Source: Michael Vi / Shutterstock.com

At a time when the economy is thriving and a high percentage of Americans are enjoying vacations and reveling in visiting nightclubs, theme parks, and restaurants, the video game sector (in my view) is not the best space in which to invest. That’s because, of course, consumers are spending so much of their days on real-world activities, leaving little time for video games.

Given these points, I recommend selling Roblox (NASDAQ:RBLX) stock now.

Valuation is certainly another factor in this recommendation, as RBLX stock has a huge trailing price-sales ratio of 10-times. Wall Street appears to be betting that the company’s metaverse-oriented games will explode in popularity, but I’m not so sure.

Indeed, as I noted in the Meta section of this column, the metaverse has been around for decades and has never amounted to much, either in terms of popularity or revenue. The same arguments I levied against Meta apply here.

Notably, Roblox is still a long way from entering the black. Analysts, on average, expect its loss per share to come in at $1.76 this year and $1.65 in 2024. Those aren’t numbers long-term investors want to see, and this stock remains a sell in my books.

Electronic Arts (EA)

Source: 360b / Shutterstock.com

Electronic Arts (NASDAQ:EA) is in a similar boat as Roblox. Specifically, with Americans spending a great deal of their time splurging on fun outdoors activities, I don’t think they’re devoting a great deal of their days or budgets to video games. And of course, that does not bode well for Electronic Arts or for EA stock.

Supporting my theory, analysts on average, expect the company’s top line to climb only 3.6% this year, while the average estimate calls for earnings per share of $7.71, versus this year’s average estimate of $6.87. In other words, the company’s top and bottom lines are not exactly growing at a frenetic pace.

Further, EA’s valuation is nothing to write home about, as its forward price-earnings ratio is 20-times, which is slightly above average. For those looking for growth, there are better places to find it right now.

Frontier Communications Parent (FYBR)

The logo for Frontier Communications (FYBR) is seen in the side of a van.

Source: panch0 aguirre / Shutterstock.com

Frontier Communications Parent (NASDAQ:FYBR) provides cable TV and internet connectivity. Like a few of the other companies on this list, Frontier is clearly being hurt by both the cord-cutting phenomenon and increased competition in the internet services provider space.

In the latter sector, competition from Verizon’s low-priced offering launched in 2022 hurts this company’s long-term outlook. Additionally, the popularity of Elon Musk’s Spacelink continues to grow. Moreover, as new technologies proliferate and become more affordable, expect many other firms to also start competing with Frontier, dragging down FYBR stock in the process.

Supporting my thesis, analysts expect FYBR to generate a loss of 4 cents per share next year, down from a profit of 3 cents per share in 2023.

On the date of publication, Larry Ramer did not hold (either directly or indirectly) any positions in the securities mentioned in this article. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the writer, subject to the InvestorPlace.com Publishing Guidelines.

Larry Ramer has conducted research and written articles on U.S. stocks for 15 years. He has been employed by The Fly and Israel’s largest business newspaper, Globes. Larry began writing columns for InvestorPlace in 2015. Among his highly successful, contrarian picks have been PLUG, XOM and solar stocks. You can reach him on Stocktwits at @larryramer.

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug