Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 4A0-C01
Exam Name : Nokia NRS II Composite Exam
Vendor Name : Alcatel-Lucent
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4A0-C01 test Format | 4A0-C01 Course Contents | 4A0-C01 Course Outline | 4A0-C01 test Syllabus | 4A0-C01 test Objectives


Exam Name: Nokia NRS II Composite Exam
Exam Number: 4A0-C01
Credit Towards Certifications: Nokia Network Routing Specialist II
Nokia Service Routing Architect
Mandatory test Prerequisites: N/A
Exam Duration: 120 minutes
Exam Appointment Duration: 165 minutes. This is the test duration plus a 45 minute tutorial on computer-based examinations.
Number of Questions: 70
Language: English

- Demonstrate a basic overall understanding of link state protocols
- Express a basic overall understanding of IP routing design
- Describe the various routing protocol databases (routing, forwarding and link state)
- Demonstrate an understanding of route redistribution and route filter policies
- Understand static and default routes
- Explain the basic operations of OSPF and implementation and operability of OSPF in a network
- Understand OSPF in basic and complex network topologies
- Understand OSPFv3
- Understand single and multi area networks in OSPFv3
- Explain the basic operations of IS-IS, and implementation and operability of IS-IS in a network
- Understand IS-IS for IPv6
- Define the differences between IS-IS and OSPF
- Understand OSPF operations and OSPF routing issues
- Understand networking utilizing a combination of OSPF and IS-IS
- Understand IPv6 basics and IPv6 addressing
- Explain the basic concepts of MPLS technology such as forwarding equivalence classes (FECs), labels and label stacks, label distribution, LSPs and MPLS packet forwarding
- Describe the MPLS header structure and explain the label operations of pop, push and swap
- List the characteristics of different label distribution protocols and compare them
- Explain how LDP works to distribute labels for FECs and establish LSPs
- Describe traffic engineering and its advantage in an MPLS network.
- Identify the traffic engineering extensions made to the IGP routing protocols and understand how they are used with CSPF to establish traffic engineered LSPs
- Demonstrate how RSVP-TE is used to establish traffic engineered LSPs using RSVP signaling messages to distribute labels, specify constraints for the LSP and request LSP protection mechanisms
- Describe the concept of a shared risk link group (SRLG) and its use in traffic engineering
- State the purpose of using LDP over RSVP tunnels to provide traffic engineering in a hierarchical network
- Configure an MPLS-based core network using LDP, RSVP-TE, and LDP over RSVP
- List the various LSP protection mechanisms (Secondary/ Standby LSP, fast reroutes)
- Describe MPLS for IP routing (MPLS shortcuts)
- Configure 6PE on a network of 7750 SRs
- Configure RSVP-TE LSPs using each of the possible protection mechanisms
- Understand how to manage, monitor and perform basic troubleshooting of LDP-established LSPs on the Nokia 7750 Service Router (SR) and Nokia 7450 Ethernet Service Switch (ESS)
- Understand how to manage, monitor and perform basic troubleshooting of RSVP-TE-established LSPs on the Nokia 7750 SR and Nokia 7450 ESS
- Demonstrate a basic overall understanding of Nokia services
- Differentiate between service access point (SAP) and network ports
- Provide an explanation for a service delivery point (SDP) and differentiate between mesh and spoke SDPs
- Differentiate between transport tunnels and service tunnels
- Correctly analyze the implications of maximum transmission unit (MTU) size
- Use the correct operations, administration and maintenance (OAM) tools to analyze a configured system
- Correctly define the terms related to VPWS services such as Epipe, Apipe, Fpipe, and Ipipe
- Correctly configure an Epipe service
- Manage Epipe services given an existing infrastructure including modifying, deleting, disabling, re-enabling, and creating these services
- Explain the issues related to VPWS interworking
- Describe the purpose and operation of a VPLS service
- Explain the different types of SAP encapsulations and describe their behavior
- Correctly configure a VPLS service
- Define and configure an Internet enhanced service (IES)
- Configure an IES spoke termination to a VPLS service
- Identify reasons to use mirror services and differentiate between local and distributed mirror services
- Configure and verify the operation of a remote mirror service
- Identify the protocols and technologies required to implement VPRN service
- Explain the interaction between the control and data plane of a VPRN service
- Configure, verify, and troubleshoot an IPv4 and IPv6 VPRN service



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug