Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : 500-490
Exam Name : Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks
Vendor Name : Cisco
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500-490 test Format | 500-490 Course Contents | 500-490 Course Outline | 500-490 test Syllabus | 500-490 test Objectives


Objectives
After taking this course, you should be able to:
Design Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) internal routing for the enterprise network
Design Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) internal routing for the enterprise network
Design Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) internal routing for the enterprise network
Design a network based on customer requirements
Design Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing for the enterprise network
Describe the different types and uses of Multiprotocol BGP (MP-BGP) address families
Describe BGP load sharing
Design a BGP network based on customer requirements
Decide where the L2/L3 boundary will be in your Campus network and make design decisions
Describe Layer 2 design considerations for Enterprise Campus networks
Design a LAN network based on customer requirements
Describe Layer 3 design considerations in an Enterprise Campus network
Examine Cisco SD-Access fundamental concepts
Describe Cisco SD-Access Fabric Design
Design an Software-Defined Access (SD-Access) Campus Fabric based on customer requirements
Design service provider-managed VPNs
Design enterprise-managed VPNs
Design a resilient WAN
Design a resilient WAN network based on customer requirements
Examine the Cisco SD-WAN architecture
Describe Cisco SD-WAN deployment options
Design Cisco SD-WAN redundancy
Explain the basic principles of QoS
Design Quality of Service (QoS) for the WAN
Design QoS for enterprise network based on customer requirements
Explain the basic principles of multicast
Designing rendezvous point distribution solutions
Describe high-level considerations when doing IP addressing design
Create an IPv6 addressing plan
Plan an IPv6 deployment in an existing enterprise IPv4 network
Describe the challenges that you might encounter when transitioning to IPv6
Design an IPv6 addressing plan based on customer requirements
Describe Network APIs and protocols
Describe Yet Another Next Generation (YANG), Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF), and Representational State Transfer Configuration Protocol (RESTCONF)
Prerequisites
Before taking this course, you should have earned CCNA® certification or be familiar with:
Basic network fundamentals and building simple LANs
Basic IP addressing and subnets
Routing and switching fundamentals
Basic wireless networking concepts and terminology
Outline
Designing EIGRP Routing
Designing OSPF Routing
Designing IS-IS Routing
Designing BGP Routing and Redundancy
Understanding BGP Address Families
Designing the Enterprise Campus LAN
Designing the Layer 2 Campus
Designing the Layer 3 Campus
Discovering the Cisco SD-Access Architecture
Exploring Cisco SD-Access Fabric Design
Designing Service Provider-Managed VPNs
Designing Enterprise-Managed VPNs
Designing WAN Resiliency
Examining Cisco SD-WAN Architectures
Cisco SD-WAN Deployment Design Considerations
Designing Cisco SD-WAN Routing and High Availability
Understanding QoS
Designing LAN and WAN QoS
Exploring Multicast with Protocol-Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode
Designing Rendezvous Point Distribution Solutions
Designing an IPv4 Address Plan
Exploring IPv6
Deploying IPv6
Introducing Network APIs and Protocols
Exploring YANG, NETCONF, RESTCONF, and Model-Driven Telemetry
Lab outline
Designing Enterprise Connectivity
Designing an Enterprise Network with BGP Internet Connectivity
Designing an Enterprise Campus LAN
Designing Resilient Enterprise WAN
Designing QoS in an Enterprise Network
Designing an Enterprise IPv6 Network

Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks (ENSLD 500-490) is a 90-minute exam associated with the CCNP Enterprise Certification. This test certifies a candidate's knowledge of enterprise design including advanced addressing and routing solutions, advanced enterprise campus networks, WAN, security services, network services, and SDA. The course, Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks, helps candidates to prepare for this exam.
The following syllabus are general guidelines for the content likely to be included on the exam. However, other related syllabus may also appear on any specific delivery of the exam. To better reflect the contents of the test and for clarity purposes, the guidelines below may change at any time without notice.
25% 1.0 Advanced Addressing and Routing Solutions
1.1 Create structured addressing plans for IPv4 and IPv6
1.2 Create stable, secure, and scalable routing designs for IS-IS
1.3 Create stable, secure, and scalable routing designs for EIGRP
1.4 Create stable, secure, and scalable routing designs for OSPF
1.5 Create stable, secure, and scalable routing designs for BGP
1.5.a Address families
1.5.b Basic route filtering
1.5.c Attributes for path preference
1.5.d Route reflectors
1.5.e Load sharing
1.6 Determine IPv6 migration strategies
1.6.a Overlay (tunneling)
1.6.b Native (dual-stacking)
1.6.c Boundaries (IPv4/IPv6 translations)
25% 2.0 Advanced Enterprise Campus Networks
2.1 Design campus networks for high availability
2.1.a First Hop Redundancy Protocols
2.1.b Platform abstraction techniques
2.1.c Graceful restart
2.1.d BFD
2.2 Design campus Layer 2 infrastructures
2.2.a STP scalability
2.2.b Fast convergence
2.2.c Loop-free technologies
2.2.d PoE and WoL
2.3 Design multicampus Layer 3 infrastructures
2.3.a Convergence
2.3.b Load sharing
2.3.c Route summarization
2.3.d Route filtering
2.3.e VRFs
2.3.f Optimal topologies
2.3.g Redistribution
2.4 Describe SD-Access Architecture (underlay, overlay, control and data plane, automation, wireless, and security)
2.5 Describe SD-Access fabric design considerations for wired and wireless access (overlay, fabric design, control plan design, border design, segmentation, virtual networks, scalability, over the top and fabric for wireless, multicast)
20% 3.0 WAN for Enterprise Networks
3.1 Compare WAN connectivity options
3.1.a Layer 2 VPN
3.1.b MPLS Layer 3 VPN
3.1.c Metro Ethernet
3.1.d DWDM
3.1.e 4G/5G
3.1.f SD-WAN customer edge
3.2 Design site-to-site VPN
3.2.a Dynamic Multipoint VPN (DMVPN)
3.2.b Layer 2 VPN
3.2.c MPLS Layer 3 VPN
3.2.d IPsec
3.2.e Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)
3.2.f Group Encrypted Transport VPN (GET VPN)
3.3 Design high availability for enterprise WAN
3.3.a Single-homed
3.3.b Multihomed
3.3.c Backup connectivity
3.3.d Failover
3.4 Describe Cisco SD-WAN Architecture (orchestration plane, management plane, control plane, data plane, on-boarding and provisioning, security)
3.5 Describe Cisco SD-WAN design considerations (control plane design, overlay design, LAN design, high availability, redundancy, scalability, security design, QoS and multicast over SD-WAN fabric)
20% 4.0 Network Services
4.1 Select appropriate QoS strategies to meet customer requirements (DiffServ, IntServ)
4.2 Design end-to-end QoS policies
4.2.a Classification and marking
4.2.b Shaping
4.2.c Policing
4.2.d Queuing
4.3 Design network management techniques
4.3.a In-band vs. out-of-band
4.3.b Segmented management networks
4.3.c Prioritizing network management traffic
4.4 Describe multicast routing concepts (source trees, shared trees, RPF, rendezvous points)
4.5 Design multicast services (SSM, PIM bidirectional, MSDP)
10% 5.0 Automation
5.1 Choose the correct YANG data model set based on requirements
5.2 Differentiate between IETF, Openconfig, and Cisco native YANG models
5.3 Differentiate between NETCONF and RESTCONF
5.4 Describe the impact of model-driven telemetry on the network
5.4.a Periodic publication
5.4.b On-change publication
5.5 Compare dial-in and dial-out approaches to model-driven telemetry



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug