Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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NextGen Bar exam MC Questions Only Require Takers To Spot Issues, And Not Apply the Rules

In law schools, generations of students have been taught the IRAC model to answer legal questions. First, students must spot the issue–what legal doctrine do the facts implicate? Second, students must state the rule–what particular legal precedent, statute, or principle governs this conflict? Third, students must then apply the rule to these facts–under a particular legal standard, how should the court rule? Fourth, students must state the conclusion–who wins, the plaintiff or the defendant?

Of course, there are many variations of IRAC, and invariably, many students stop using it rigidly at some point during the second year. But the basic process–applying a rule to particular facts is a cornerstone of legal education.

That background brings me to the NextGen bar exam. I have written about this new formulation of the multistate bar exam, which will launch in some states in 2026. Justice Jay Mitchell of the Alabama Supreme Court already expressed a concern that the National Conference of Bar Examiners (NCBE) is placing DEI concerns over competence. (Critics contend that the bar exam is racist, and should be eliminated). I have another concern, which may be related–the NCBE seems to be making the exam substantially easier.

The NCBE released a batch of questions to demonstrate how the NextGen exam will function. The multiple choice questions reflect a new approach. Rather than forcing students to memorize particular rules, and then apply them, the new questions only ask students to spot the issue. The thinking is that practicing attorneys do not actually have to memorize particular rules, or even know how to apply them. So long as they can recognize what doctrine is implicated, a quick query on WestLaw, Lexis, and (lord help us) ChatGPT can locate the particular rule, and then the lawyer can figure out how to apply that rule to the facts (or just ask ChatGPT to do it). In short, bar examinees will not have to know the rule, apply the rule, or conclude the case. They only have to spot the issue. Only I, not RAC.

Consider this Criminal Procedure question:

You are a criminal defense lawyer representing a client who has been charged with fentanyl possession. The police found the fentanyl in the guest bedroom of the client's uncle's house when responding to a noise complaint at the house. Before entering the house, the officers knocked on the door. When the uncle answered the door, the officers asked if they could look inside the house, and the uncle agreed. The client did not live in the house and was not there at the time of the search. The client had stayed in the guest bedroom of the house two nights prior to the search. The uncle told the officers that the client was the last person to have slept in that room.

You are considering filing a motion to suppress the fentanyl under the Fourth Amendment.

Which of the following legal Topics are the most important for you to research to determine the likelihood of success on a motion to suppress? Select two.

A. Consent search.B. Exigent circumstances.C. Hot pursuit.D. Probable cause.E.Reasonable suspicion.F. Standing.

The correct answer here is A (Consent Search) and F (Standing). Those are the legal Topics that are "most important" to research. First, would the Uncle have authority to consent to the search? Second, would the criminal defendant have standing to challenge the Uncle's consent? Now the examinee does not actually have to answer whether the motion to suppress would be granted. Who cares if the Uncle could consent to the search? It doesn't matter if the defendant has standing. The test taker doesn't even have to know the relevant rules for consent searches and standing. All she has to do is spot the issue. I suppose the NCBE thinks that a first-year lawyer can simply enter "consent search" and "standing" into ChatGPT, knowing nothing more, and obtain the answer. I am not confident anyone can figure out these doctrines on the fly.

Let's try a Property question.

You are representing a client in a dispute with a neighbor. The client owns a single-family home with several acres of surrounding land. Recently, the client noticed that his neighbor had built a fence that extends onto the client's land. The client is unsure when the fence was built because that part of the client's land is obscured by large trees. When the client contacted the neighbor about the fence, the neighbor claimed that she did not know the location of the property line. The client has shown you a recent survey of the property that confirms the encroachment and has asked you whether he has a claim against the neighbor.

Which of the following legal Topics are the most important for you to research before advising the client? Select two.

A. Adverse possession.B. Conversion.C. Implied easement.D. License.E. Negligence.F. Trespass.

The answers here are, once again, A (Adverse Possession) and F (Trespass). The question presented is whether the neighbor's fence encroaches (trespasses) on the client's property, and if there is an encroachment, has the neighbor acquired the right to do so through adverse possession. This question is complicated, because trees obscure the boundary (affecting the open and notorious prong), and the neighbor may not have even known if he was obtaining land through adverse possession (in the lingo, did he have the right claim of right?). I could see a student struggling with applying the rules to this question. But on the bar, an applicant only needs to spot the relevant doctrine, and pray they can figure stuff out when in practice.

I worry that these questions are far too simple. If the states end up adopting the NextGen exam, they should increase the cut score (the relevant percentage needed to pass the exam). Finally, I worry how this exam will trickle down to law school pedagogy. Will professors shift their coverage to no longer require memorizing and applying the rules–only spotting issues? It's true that all lawyers have sophisticated tools at their disposal to research different topics. This new format seems to be a surrender to this technology–don't require students to do what they don't have to. I, for one, do not plan to change how I teach for this exam. And state supreme court justices should take a very long pause before adopting this new exam.


Swiftonomics, Kamala Harris and Decadent Real Estate: Your Questions, Answered.

This transcript was created using speech recognition software. While it has been reviewed by human transcribers, it may contain errors. Please review the episode audio before quoting from this transcript and email transcripts@nytimes.com with any questions. general position is a Luddite refusal to engage with AI-generated art.

lydia polgreen

Until it fools you.

ross douthat

Exactly. Right now, one of my three co-hosts is actually an AI-generated —

michelle cottle

Shh.

ross douthat

— version. But I don’t know which.

carlos lozada

I knew it!

ross douthat

I don’t know which one.

lydia polgreen

Nobody knows which one! I think that’s the plot of “Blade Runner.” [MUSIC PLAYING]

ross douthat

From New York Times Opinion, I’m Ross Douthat.

michelle cottle

I’m Michelle Cottle.

lydia polgreen

I’m Lydia Polgreen.

carlos lozada

I’m Carlos Lozada. And this is “Matter of Opinion.”

[MUSIC PLAYING]

ross douthat

So it’s a very special time of the year. It’s the holiday season for those who celebrate — Christmas, Hanukkah, Kwanzaa, Festivus, Saint Nicholas —

carlos lozada

For the rest of us.

ross douthat

Festivus for the rest of us. And it’s also the last of their episodes for the year of their Lord, 2023. And in the spirit of the season, since they love their listeners, they asked you to send us what you want to hear us talk about for this episode, from episode ideas to quick Hot Cold reactions, to things that all of you put forward. And so we’re responding. So we’re going to start out in the first segment with quick reactions. And I think we’re starting with a voicemail. So let’s hear it.

archived recording (joe)

I’m Joe. I’m 22. I’m from Minnesota. And I actually went to one of Ross’s talks when I was a student in college. I was actually in a monk class.

michelle cottle

Oh.

archived recording (joe)

So I was on a vow of silence. So I’m wondering if you guys are hot and cold on asceticism. And I’m just wondering if you guys meditate or exercise or how you self-care. All right, thanks.

michelle cottle

Huh, wow.

ross douthat

Oh, wow. My apologies —

carlos lozada

I wonder if he was meditating during your class, during your lecture.

ross douthat

Clearly, he abandoned the monastery.

michelle cottle

Way to go, Ross. You drove him out of the church, nice.

ross douthat

So another failure. So who has a take on asceticism, hot or cold?

carlos lozada

I can jump in on asceticism, weirdly. Joe from Minnesota says that he was on a vow of silence when he was in your class, which is why he couldn’t complain. And I —

ross douthat

It was on speaking engagement, not a class, Carlos.

lydia polgreen

Wow. Wow.

carlos lozada

So asceticism, asceticism is a sort of intense self-discipline and self-denial relating to sex and food and other indulgences, right? Is that a fair description? Often religiously based.

But, you know, speaking of the vow of silence, I actually, in the late ‘90s, I was a wee lad. I did a silent retreat at the Abbey of Gethsemani in Kentucky, which is where Thomas Merton, the famous Trappist monk, spent so much time. He called it “the four walls of my new freedom,” which was just a wonderful description. That’s in “The Seven Story Mountain.” I sort of cheated during the silent retreat because I would go into the library a lot and listen to the tapes of Merton’s sermons.

michelle cottle

Huh.

carlos lozada

So it was silent in terms of my speech, but not —

michelle cottle

Oh, yeah, I thought that was OK.

carlos lozada

— in terms of my — yeah.

michelle cottle

I just thought you couldn’t talk.

ross douthat

Well, it’s like you can hear preaching on a silent retreat. I think that’s —

carlos lozada

Yeah, but so I think I’m hot on asceticism, as weird as that sounds. I’m so hot on asceticism, but in the kind of Merton way, I think, and I don’t think he thought of it in terms of restricting your body from pleasure, but giving over your will to try to live life in imitation of Christ, which is how he saw it. So it’s a lot more to it than just giving up chocolate for Lent.

michelle cottle

I mean, I like it theoretically, but I don’t have the time or brain space. That’s just like, this is —

carlos lozada

That’s the whole point, to give yourself the [INAUDIBLE]!

michelle cottle

But yeah, well, who’s going to pick up the pieces of my life while that happens? That’s my question.

carlos lozada

The Lord.

michelle cottle

Oh, right.

ross douthat

Our kids, some of their kids’ school does some sort of semi-secular meditation. And my son, who is a big fan of all forms of warfare, he’s seven years old.

michelle cottle

Oh.

ross douthat

At one point, one of his grandparents heard about this and said, well, what do you think about when you’re meditating? And he looked at her, and he said, weapons.

michelle cottle

[LAUGHS]: Boom, drop the mic.

ross douthat

So all right. Let’s do another one. Let’s hear it.

archived recording (olivia)

Hi there. My name is Olivia. I’m a college student in Baltimore. I would love to hear your take on Taylor Swift and her economic impact, her social impact. Tell me what you guys think. Love your show.

lydia polgreen

Oh, OK. So I am a fan. I’m into Taylor. Love Tay Tay. “Folklore” got me through the pandemic. Like, she’s made some fantastic music. She’s “Time’s” Person of the Year. She’s on the cover. And I’m here to call it. Enough. Maybe Taylor could take a break, you know? Like —

michelle cottle

Oh, wow, no.

lydia polgreen

This is just like old-fashioned Milton Friedman supply and demand economics, but I feel like I worry that we’re teetering into oversupply of Taylor. And maybe she could tighten up supply and increase demand.

michelle cottle

No, see, I’m completely in disagreement with this. I am —

carlos lozada

If you don’t increase demand, you increase the price when you tighten up supply.

ross douthat

Carlos, are you perhaps a professional economist? Are you a trained economist?

lydia polgreen

Might you have you worked for the Fed at some point?

michelle cottle

Yes, talk to us about Swiftonomics, Carlos.

carlos lozada

No, no, no, no, no, no, I have nothing to say on Swiftonomics. And I’m with Lydia.

ross douthat

OK, Michelle has — they need the pro-Taylor take.

michelle cottle

No, I’m totally pro-Swiftonomics. People have broken down not just kind of what her tour contributed to her pockets, which I’m all about. Girl power, you rake in that money, baby. She has created a product that people are dying for, and that’s great. But it also has been estimated that she contributed like 5.7 billion to the US economy when you factor in travel and hotels and food and merch and outfits and all these screaming Swifties. I’m fine with this. I don’t see any problem with it. It’s not like she’s selling drugs.

ross douthat

So onward. This one is a reader email from Matt, and he is asking about the Las Vegas sphere, the huge venue slash — it’s not a dome. I mean, it’s a sphere, right, rising above the Strip. And he asks, “Is it a gaudy eyesore operated by a malignant businessman that is wasting insane amounts of energy and money? Or is it a testimony to humanity’s ingenuity, a brilliant act of anti-decadence?” I think Matt might be —

michelle cottle

I don’t understand that —

lydia polgreen

Why do they have to choose?

ross douthat

— pushing my decadence up.

michelle cottle

Can’t it be both, Matt?

carlos lozada

I don’t know anything about the Las Vegas sphere, but I will say there is a lot of room between a gaudy eyesore and a brilliant act of anti-decadence.

ross douthat

But is there?

carlos lozada

But there’s a lot of space in between there.

ross douthat

Is there?

michelle cottle

It’s a tribute to man’s enduring love of spectacle. It’s their Roman Colosseum. Hmm.

carlos lozada

Maybe it’s a brilliant act of gaudy eyesore.

michelle cottle

When it turns into an eyeball, it is so freaky.

lydia polgreen

Has anybody been to it? Have you seen it in person or just experienced it virtually?

michelle cottle

No, I’ve not been to — I know lots of people are going to the U2 concert.

ross douthat

I’m in Vegas every weekend, so obviously.

lydia polgreen

I assumed so.

michelle cottle

Ross has a little gambling problem.

lydia polgreen

Ross is a roulette man.

ross douthat

Ocean’s 11 was actually about me. The Julia Roberts character was based on my work. No, I’m honestly torn. I mean, I think in general, under my definition of decadence, Las Vegas is inherently decadent, that no matter how awesome you make Vegas, this sort of simulation of great human landmarks dedicated to casino gambling, it can’t escape decadence. But I will concede that if something in Vegas were to escape, it would be something as brazen and balls out absurd as the sphere.

michelle cottle

It’s at least not pretending to be something else. It’s not a —

ross douthat

No, that’s true.

michelle cottle

— fake pyramid or —

ross douthat

It’s not a fake pyramid.

michelle cottle

— a fake eye. It is a really weird sphere.

ross douthat

You’re tipping me towards anti-decadence, yeah. All right, let’s move on to their next, which is, I guess, a surprise from their producers —

michelle cottle

Oh, dear.

ross douthat

— that we’re just going to play.

michelle cottle

Now I’m afraid.

carlos lozada

That terrifies me.

archived recording (sophia)

Hi, it’s your producer, Sophia.

And I have a Hot Cold for you based on something I have become quite cold on this year, which are self-checkouts. I’m often not going to self-checkouts anymore and preferring the human contact at a grocery store. But I think about this in the larger span of this year, where there’s been so much talk about the doom of technology and AI. And so I’m wondering what piece of technology you are now cold on, going into 2024.

ross douthat

Well, that was the best question we’ve had so far. I can’t even answer it. It was such a good —

michelle cottle

You’re not getting a raise, Ross. You’re not getting a raise.

ross douthat

Such a good question. Who’s got this one?

michelle cottle

Carlos, you hate all technology. What do you got?

carlos lozada

Well, it’s funny because you’re right. I do hate all technology, but I kind of love the self-checkout.

ross douthat

That’s because you hate people even more!

carlos lozada

Even more!

lydia polgreen

Wow.

michelle cottle

In the hierarchy of phobias —

lydia polgreen

The worst technology is the human.

carlos lozada

I kind of love the self-checkout. I don’t know how meaningful the human interaction is that I attain in the checkout line. So I am not anti-self-checkout. I am lukewarm on the self-checkout.

ross douthat

Has anyone turned on a piece of tech?

lydia polgreen

I mean, I’ve done a real 180 on social media.

ross douthat

You love it now.

lydia polgreen

I love it now. No. Like, I recently left Twitter, and I think maybe for the last time, although I’m against definitive declarations —

ross douthat

You’re cold on — yeah.

lydia polgreen

I think this was the year that it really turned for me. And I was like, you know what? Peace out. I’m no longer doing this. And I’m on some of the other platforms, but in a much more desultory way. But I’m actually grateful for that. I’m glad that it doesn’t give that dopamine hit in quite the same way.

michelle cottle

Taking back your brain.

ross douthat

My terrible realization is that actually Elon Musk’s algorithm works on me. The For You tab, where he just sort of delivers curated tweets to me about collapsing fertility and “Lord of the Rings,” actually keeps me scrolling and more. I hate myself for it. But it’s the reality. All right, let’s do let’s do one more, one more voicemail.

archived recording (pete)

Hi, everyone. This is Pete from Minneapolis, Minnesota. I’m calling to see if you are hot or cold on making statements. It seems that whenever there’s a major event, most recently with Israel and Palestine, individuals and organizations are compelled to come out with a statement.

And I think there’s more than just moral showboating here. I think there’s something deep in their psyches as Americans, as members of a democracy, that makes us think their individual voice can turn the mammoth carrier ship of history and affect social change, and that in the face of injustice, somehow, we’re not powerless to make a difference. That’s pretty fascinating and something I would love to hear you all talk about. Thanks for the show. And I look forward to hearing more. Bye.

carlos lozada

Mammoth carrier ship of history.

lydia polgreen

I love all these Minnesotans. This is great. It warms my heart. I feel like they’re all showing up.

michelle cottle

Your people are showing up, Lydia.

lydia polgreen

My people are showing up, yeah.

ross douthat

So here’s the thing. That was such a good question that I think they need to go more than just quick Hot Cold on it. So I’m going to use that as a moment to say thank you to Joe, Olivia, Matt, and Pete, and especially their producer, Sophia, for your Hot and Cold suggestions. And we’ll take a quick break and be right back to talk about statements. Stay with us.

[MUSIC PLAYING]

And we’re back. And we’ll try and answer some of your questions, both broad and even personal. But let’s start with the last listener voicemail from before the break, which asked us about making statements, the pattern of every major American institution, from Ivy League schools down to your local progressive daycare, issuing a statement after any event of national import. What do you guys think about this?

michelle cottle

Ugh. I’m serious. Obviously, they can do this. I’m sure some of them feel compelled to do this, but you’re just asking for a world of hurt. Do I really need to know if the guy who sells me my bagel, what side of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict he’s on? Do I really need to know, going bigger, if the people who make my car, what their political positions are or how they come down on these? No. No, I don’t. I just think that that is going to land them often in the middle of a giant poop storm, and they’re just asking for more trouble than it’s worth.

carlos lozada

Well, I think what has happened to a lot of institutions is that there was this period basically from, you could say, the election of Donald Trump onward when there was a set of political issues where the sort of center left and the further left liberals and progressives were very united. And so all of these institutions that were themselves mostly left of center felt really comfortable having a kind of corporate institutional opinion on what was happening in the world.

And what we’ve seen lately with Israel and Palestine is that as soon as you get an issue that divides a lot of centrist liberals from a lot of progressives, these institutions have a big problem, because everyone is mad at them for either making a statement or not making a statement or being too pro-Israel or too pro-Palestinian. And it seems like the answer is just to beat a strategic retreat from this pattern of statement making. But once you’ve established the pattern, if you try and beat a retreat, it looks like you are copping out and showing bias or favoritism or what have you.

lydia polgreen

I mean, I generally think that stay in your lane, you know. And of course, they are all paid to write their opinions. So it’s easy for us to be like stay in your lane because this is their lane. They write their opinions. They make statements.

ross douthat

Wait.

lydia polgreen

You know?

ross douthat

Wait, you guys are paid?

michelle cottle

And boy, they take a beating for it, though.

lydia polgreen

But it’s interesting. You know, like, I was running a small podcast company with a mostly progressive staff during the George Floyd protests and all of that kind of stuff, and it wasn’t so much a need to make public statements because their parent company, Spotify, did most of that. And the public statements were quite sort of anodyne and doing things like turning the album covers black, things that were just gestures rather than real action.

But the way that I responded to it was to actually just write letters to the staff about what I was thinking and feeling. And it’s funny. I’ve actually never thought about this. But I think that writing those letters to the staff was actually part of what convinced me that I wanted to be an opinion columnist.

[laughs]

Because I enjoyed doing them, you know? And they were personal, and they were like — it wasn’t, I feel your pain. It was like, here’s how I’m thinking about these issues, you know?

So these weren’t public statements. But it was just sort of me talking to a very amped up and emotionally upset staff about a range of issues. And that to me felt like a normal and natural thing to do in a small institution. But these big institutions with their big public statements, no thank you.

carlos lozada

What I will say about these statements is, setting aside editorial boards, for whom this obviously does not apply, institutional voices are usually less interesting than individual ones. And especially statements that are issued in the middle of very contentious political debates have a sameness to them that is kind of deadening.

It’s the same reason that I really don’t like open letters, open letters that have been written by sort of very prominent and talented writers almost always are the worst thing they will ever write. The least interesting kind of writing that will ever be produced is that appears in an open letter. So the kind of drab sameness of the statements and the very unpersuasive low quality of the writing makes me in the anti-statement camp. I’d much rather hear individual pieces or individual expressions or individual statements than any of these institutional or collective ones.

michelle cottle

You object to the aesthetics.

ross douthat

I would only —

michelle cottle

The literary quality.

ross douthat

I would only qualify that analysis by saying that there is a kind of perverse pleasure to be taken in studying the statements put out where it’s clear the school has no idea what to say. And they’re trying to use that kind of anodyne —

michelle cottle

That’s just meanness, Ross.

ross douthat

— predictable language not to make an anodyne point, but to make no point at all. And there is a kind of Las Vegas Sphere-like majesty that some of these statements achieve. All right —

michelle cottle

That was a reach.

carlos lozada

You’re a brilliant act of anti-decadence, yes.

ross douthat

No, it was a brilliant —

michelle cottle

That’s a reach, Ross.

ross douthat

— anti-decadence. All right, let’s dive into some more listener correspondence. So Todd wrote us an email to bring us down into the muck of presidential politics.

michelle cottle

Oh, my people! My people, Todd!

ross douthat

Todd asked, Vice President Kamala Harris was nowhere to be found in the episode they did where they designed imaginary presidential tickets. So why not Harris as part of anyone’s dream match-up?

michelle cottle

Well, Todd, when you have a politician who is even less popular than the president that everybody is panic about in many polls, even Democrats are talking smack about her. She was a mediocre candidate in 2016, such that she dropped out pretty early. She has not dazzled as VP, which, admittedly, is a hard job to dazzle in. It is worth a bucket of warm pee. It’s usually not good to staff a dream ticket with those kind of stats. So even if you think Kamala —

carlos lozada

But a real ticket.

michelle cottle

Even if you think Kamala has done a better job than she’s getting credit for, if you’re staffing a dream ticket, she’s not going to make the cut.

carlos lozada

I will follow up on Michelle here. And I think if none of us mentioned Kamala Harris, it’s because none of us find her worthy of being on their dream ticket. But I read her 2019 memoir, “The Truths They Hold,” and there was this one thing she did that kind of bothered me a bit and that has affected the way I view her.

When presented with a difficult conundrum between two competing ideas, she’s like, oh, that’s just a false choice. She writes, it is a false choice to suggest that you have to be for the police or for police accountability. I’m for both. I’m not for American citizens and against immigrants or the other way around. I’m for both. She constantly brings up this idea of false choices. And of course, it sounds very sage and wise to call something a false choice, but politics is all about making difficult choices among competing priorities. And Harris seems to want to stay on both sides of difficult questions, which made me instinctively not trust her as a president or vice president.

ross douthat

But there’s an interesting way in which what’s downstream of what there, right? Like, I remember when Barack Obama was sort of emerging on the national stage and sort of casting himself as a new leader for a new generation. And I think in “The Audacity of Hope” and sort of things he wrote and said around that time, he did a version of that, right? He said, I’m a Democrat. But the Republicans are right about some things. And he did some of what maybe she’s trying to do. She just — she doesn’t carry it off.

michelle cottle

She has a problem as a candidate. Lydia, what do you think?

lydia polgreen

Well, I mean, I think I’m probably the most sympathetic to Kamala Harris among this group, in part because I think it’s a very difficult and tricky thing for a Black woman of her generation to find a place of equilibrium within politics.

And she’s of a generation that came into politics via law enforcement, which is kind of a tough fit and figuring out how to make that work with the current dynamics of the progressive side of the Democratic Party that whose support she would need in order to really, really vault her forward. I think that Black women often need to be just much, much, much more careful about how they manage their emotional energy, in how they present themselves.

So I look at Kamala, and I see a lot of things that I deeply understand of a woman of a certain age with a lot of talent, working within a culture that has certain expectations. And so I’m sympathetic. All of that being said, she still doesn’t make my dream ticket.

ross douthat

All right, let’s go to the next question, which is Jerry listened to their recent election day episode and wants to know, why are journalists still so interested in polls? Have you not read James Fallows’ critique — that’s my former “Atlantic” colleague and distinguished journalist and critic of the press — his critique of journalists’ fascination with polls? So what do they think? Are journalists still drunk on the polling Kool-Aid? I guess you don’t get drunk on Kool-Aid, so.

lydia polgreen

[LAUGHS]: It depends on how much sugar there is in it.

michelle cottle

I can tell Lydia has much to say about it.

ross douthat

Lydia.

lydia polgreen

Thank you. I mean, I am going to take a slightly — I mean, I have an enormous amount of respect for Jim Fallows. He’s an extraordinary journalist. And his positions on these things, I think, are sometimes flattened and and caricatured in a way that isn’t actually true. I mean, I think that as a journalist, I always want to have more, rather than less information. And the question is, what do you do with information? How do you analyze it? What weight do you put on it?

So to me, polls are just another form of information. And the reason you started doing polls is because understanding what large numbers of people say is really useful to getting a sense of what’s going on out there in the country. And there are lots of problems with it, and particularly now, with cell phones and who actually answers their phones and all that kind of stuff, there are issues.

But coming back to Jim Fallows, he has this line where he says that they should think of polls as climate versus weather, which I think is actually a really useful thing. Weather is like, is it going to rain tomorrow. And if your poll is like is so-and-so going to win or is so-and-so up or down, that’s actually not that useful. But if you think of it as a more kind of like, this year is going to be hotter than any year that we’ve had in human history, then that way of thinking about polling is actually more useful.

ross douthat

Yeah. So I’m going to take Lydia’s brilliant reference to the climate versus weather analogy as a bridge to the next question, which is from Rebecca, who emailed us because she’s interested to hear how they think about parenting in the age of climate crisis. She writes, not so much in the sense of how to talk to children, but how to be an adult handing off a world in so much trouble to younger generations. I like it best when the four of you get into ethics and questions of how to live and think about right and wrong in this very confusing time.

Now, I have strong feelings about this idea of the climate crisis as sort of this special challenge to parenting. My general view and, one, I’m coming to this as someone who does worry less about climate change as an existential threat to humanity than some people do. So obviously, the more existential you imagine climate change to be, the more panic you will be about what it means for your kids.

But my general view is that the human race depends on people having children and making optimistic decisions about the future and having hope for their children, even in the face of the various inevitable calamities, to which human beings are heir. And that if climate change presents a set of real and substantial problems to their civilization, at the same time, their civilization is the richest, healthiest, in many cases, not always, but pretty healthy, longest lived civilization in all of human history.

And even if climate change threatens that, it still, in no way, creates conditions at all like the conditions in which your grandparents and great grandparents and infinitely far back great grandparents had children and made it possible for you to exist today. So I think there’s just a fundamental hopefulness that human beings should carry with them in the act of forming families and begetting children that, yes, there will be challenges. It may not be climate change. It might be just as no one anticipated, the coronavirus. It may be some —

michelle cottle

Alien invasion.

ross douthat

It may be the alien — thank you. It may be the alien invasion, but you have to assume that it is good for human life to continue, even in the face of these challenges, and that your kids will be no worse off in facing these challenges than the generations upon generations of people who had kids and flourished and struggled and suffered in much more difficult circumstances, certainly, than they in the United States are likely to face.

michelle cottle

That was beautiful, Ross.

ross douthat

All right, let’s go on to Leslie, who says, “Please, more book recommendations.”

michelle cottle

[GASPING]:

carlos lozada

Oh, god.

lydia polgreen

Oh, I love the readers. I love the readers.

ross douthat

“I read ‘The Transit of Venus’ after Lydia —”

lydia polgreen

Yes!

ross douthat

”— recommended it this summer. What an exquisite book. I would also like to know more about Carlos studying out loud to his kids. In my experience, as they age, they sometimes become less cooperative with studying aloud. But he seems to be studying with older kids, high school aged.” Carlos.

carlos lozada

I’ll let you all deliver the recommendations.

michelle cottle

What?

carlos lozada

No, and then I can give the specific answer to the specific question that —

michelle cottle

No, I’m calling BS.

carlos lozada

— was aimed at me.

michelle cottle

I want to hear your book recommendations.

carlos lozada

I do that all the time.

ross douthat

This is just for you, Carlos.

michelle cottle

I don’t care.

carlos lozada

When people say like, what book should I read, what book do they do, like, I don’t know. I don’t know you.

michelle cottle

Stop overthinking it and just tell us what to do.

ross douthat

What are you reading? What are you studying now?

carlos lozada

It always bothers me. I’m studying a book I’m very enjoying. It’s called “Fire Weather” by John — Vaillant? I’m not sure how to pronounce the last name, V-A-I-L-L-A-N-T.

michelle cottle

Oh, yeah, it was one of The New York Times top 10 books.

carlos lozada

Yes, it was. Yes, it was. And it is about a extraordinary fire in Canada in 2016. What I’m enjoying — so I’m about halfway through it. I’m enjoying so far about this book is, how the fire itself is a vibrant and compelling character in the book.

lydia polgreen

Oh, I love that.

carlos lozada

It comes alive in just sort of extraordinary way. So “Fire Weather.” That’s it.

michelle cottle

See, I’m going to read that.

carlos lozada

But now about studying with my children, that is one of the great pleasures of my life. Not just my family life, but my life, period. I hope it’s a great pleasure for my wife and my children as well.

lydia polgreen

Who cares?

carlos lozada

But the thing is, I’m not that panic about the issue that Leslie raises in terms of finding books that can appeal to different ages and that they kind of age out of it, because think of the books that you’ve read and reread in your own life. You keep finding new things in them, because you’re a different reader. You’re a different person every time that you read.

One of my favorite books growing up and still one of my favorite books is Louise Fitzhugh’s “Harriet the Spy.” When I first read “Harriet the Spy,” I was focused on Harriet at school and on her spy route because those were the most kind of interesting and accessible and relevant parts of the book to me. As I got older, I was much more interested in Harriet’s relationship with her parents, which is a fascinating part of the story.

So when I’m studying with my kids, who I have one in high school, one in middle school, and one in elementary school, they end up studying books that can appeal to each of them in a different way. Like, you read “Animal Farm.” It’s different to a fourth grader and to a ninth grader. They can both get a lot out of it.

ross douthat

Do you do funny accents when you read?

carlos lozada

I sometimes change the voices a little bit, and they like that. They think it’s fun. But I don’t focus so much on that.

ross douthat

OK, because that’s one of my special pleasures as a reader.

michelle cottle

Ooh.

ross douthat

All right, let’s end on one of the shorter questions they received from listener Doug, who asked, what would this show be like if you were all drinking wine?

michelle cottle

Thank you, Doug, I have asked that a million times and nobody’s listening to me.

carlos lozada

Who’s saying we’re not?

lydia polgreen

I was gonna say.

ross douthat

You can’t see us.

lydia polgreen

Yeah, I’m more of a martini person than a wine person, but I think that Ross would probably agree with me more if he was drinking.

ross douthat

No, the truth is, I am in my —

carlos lozada

Lydia, that’s such a sneaky way of saying that deep down, Ross actually subscribes to your worldview.

michelle cottle

Ross is a closet progressive.

carlos lozada

Yeah.

ross douthat

That’s the in vino veritas view, but the other view is that, yeah, if you altered my consciousness in some sneaky way, I would have some bad opinions. I would fall asleep. That’s the sad truth.

michelle cottle

I would sing, and nobody wants that.

ross douthat

Oh, I would sing.

michelle cottle

Oh, we’d all sing.

ross douthat

There’d be a lot of singing.

michelle cottle

There’d be singing.

ross douthat

There’d be some Taylor Swift being sung.

michelle cottle

Carlos?

carlos lozada

Does it have to be? Oh, my God.

michelle cottle

Don’t be a baby.

ross douthat

(SINGING) They were both young when I first saw you. All right. Let’s leave it there. Singers’ privilege. When they come back, we’ll share what they would like to see stick around from this year into next. Hang in there.

[MUSIC PLAYING]

And we’re back. So since this is their final episode of the year, I thought they would just end by talking about what they want to take with us from 2023 into 2024, a thing or a feeling or an experience that will stick with you from the year that was or the year that still is, but is vanishing as they speak. Anyone?

lydia polgreen

Well, I am moving, as I’ve mentioned a few times on this podcast. My wife said to me the other night, I feel like their whole personality is that we’re moving because they just talk about it constantly. But the thing that has actually been really wonderful in the move is the Buy Nothing group that I belong to on Facebook. They are downsizing from a big apartment to a smaller one. And so that’s involved trying to get rid of a lot of stuff. And it turns out it’s really hard to give things away.

But I love my Buy Nothing group. Like, I’ll post something on there. I’ll be like, hey, I have this backpack. It’s a great backpack. And the ability to give it to a person who will actually use it and appreciate it and to have that kind of human to human connection, rather than just stuffing it in a bag and leaving it at the Goodwill Depot or something, I don’t know. It’s just been really great. So I want to take that energy of giving and sharing and perhaps consuming less with me into 2024.

ross douthat

Well, I’ll go next. I took — well, I should say my wife and I took their family of four children 12 and under to Europe this summer. They went to London and Amsterdam and Paris, and back to London and to Stonehenge and to various manors and castles all the way up to Scotland. And it was a wonderful time. And honestly, this is a very sort of dad thing to say, but it was one of the greatest logistical triumphs of my entire life. And I intend to carry —

michelle cottle

Clark Griswold.

ross douthat

I intend to carry that satisfaction with me into whatever trips await in 2024. Michelle?

michelle cottle

OK, I’m going to get uncharacteristically mushy, so without getting into too much detail, this was a year when my household had multiple kind of heart-stopping health scares and crises and multiple surgeries. And at every step of the way, no matter what I needed, I discovered that my friends were going to be there, and they were going to step in, whether it was food or sitting in a waiting room or calling in the middle of the night or just letting me cry. They were going to be there for me.

And at some point, I even told my husband, you always have these fantasies about, well, we’re going to retire, and we’re going to move to the south of France or this island or the villages or whatever. And I’m like, honey, I don’t think they can actually move away from this group of people that they have come to depend on so much and love so much. So it’s completely cheesy to say you can’t live without somebody, but my end of the year shoutout for my friends is they would not have made it through this year without you.

lydia polgreen

Oh, I love that.

carlos lozada

Wow.

ross douthat

Carlos, tough act to follow, but —

michelle cottle

You’re gonna go with “MoO” It better be “MoO.”

ross douthat

— see us out into 2024.

carlos lozada

So I changed jobs about a year ago. And changing jobs is not always easy — new colleagues, new rhythms, new expectations self-imposed. And I discovered a couple of things. One, that the job of an opinion columnist, as sexy and exciting as it sounds —

ross douthat

High profile.

carlos lozada

— can be a little isolating. It’s kind of you and your words and your thoughts. But one thing that was new to me this year, as cheesy as this sounds, was this podcast, was “Matter of Opinion.” And “Matter of Opinion” has given me a community that I did not expect to get when I came to The Times. I did not think I’d be doing audio. And working every week with the producers and the editors and the co-hosts has been a small, unexpected blessing for me. So I hope if —

ross douthat

You’re not crying, I’m —. No. I’m not —

carlos lozada

I know. I hope —

michelle cottle

I’m not crying.

carlos lozada

If all of you — and sort of as unnatural as the audio medium feels like for me, it’s been a wonderful presence. Now, I hope to carry it forward in 2024. That kind of depends on their listeners.

michelle cottle

The listeners.

ross douthat

That’s right.

carlos lozada

But I imagine —

ross douthat

Carlos’s happiness is in your hands.

carlos lozada

Yes, so anyway, thank you to the listeners, but really, to the team here that has given me this wonderful, new community in my new professional home.

michelle cottle

Group hug for Carlos.

lydia polgreen

Group hug for all of us.

michelle cottle

Group hug!

ross douthat

All right. That concludes their last episode of the year. Thank you to all the listeners who they heard from and all of those they didn’t have time to hear from for sharing your thoughts and spending your time with us this year. We’ve loved getting to know you and each other, even Carlos.

Thank you for coming along with us. And the best gift that you can give us is telling anyone in your life who you think might like this show. And leave a nice review wherever you follow “Matter of Opinion,” too. They hope you have a happy holidays, a great end to your 2023, and they will see you back in this feed in January. Have a good one, everyone.

lydia polgreen

Happy holidays, guys.

michelle cottle

Happy holidays.

carlos lozada

Amen.

[MUSIC PLAYING]

ross douthat

“Matter of Opinion” is produced by Sophia Alvarez Boyd, Phoebe Lett and Derek Arthur. It’s edited by Alison Bruzek. Their fact-check team is Kate Sinclair, Mary Marge Locker and Michelle Harris. Original music by Isaac Jones, Carole Sabouraud and Pat McCusker. Mixing by Pat McCusker. Audience strategy by Shannon Busta and Kristina Samulewski. Their executive producer, now and hopefully for all the years to come, is Annie Rose Strasser.

[MUSIC PLAYING]


 


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug