Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Avaya to Roll Out Unified Communications App

client communications

The one-X Communicator provides full telephony features, desktop video, visual voicemail, e-mail, instant messaging, conference bridge integration, directories and contact history. From a single application, one click launches almost any form of communication, including applications from different vendors and protocols.

The initial product release in May will combine a telephony presence from Avaya Communication Manager with Instant Messaging from Microsoft Office Communications Server. Future releases of Intelligent Presence will integrate additional presence sources.

The Avaya one-X Communicator tab within Microsoft Office Communicator 2007 will also provide direct access to advanced telephony capabilities including mobility, call recording and transfer.

"Avaya one-X Communicator offers a highly flexible solution for businesses and employees," said Mary Dunlop, vice president, Unified Communications Product Management, in a statement. "A single desktop application brings the workforce together and allows users to make more accurate, effective choices for how they communicate."

The application supports both H.323 and SIP communications protocols that enables employees with mixed communications environments to participate in the same voice and video call or session.

The Avaya one-X Communicator drives video through Avaya Communication Manager to help preserve bandwidth and provide class of service control. Avaya Strategic AlliancePartner Polycom will provide the video processing technology that powers one-X Communicator's point-to-point video communication.

With the addition of Polycom's multi-point conferencing unit, one-X Communicator can support several participants in the same video conferencing session. Additionally, Avaya and PC maker Lenovo will launch a new version of the Avaya Mobility Edition for Lenovo ThinkPad notebooks and ThinkCentre desktops based on the new one-X Communicator.

Avaya one-X Communicator joins other one-X suite of products, including Avaya one-X Portal, a browser-based Unified Communications client that provides access to telephony, visual voice mail and audio conferencing. Users can access one-X Portal using Microsoft Internet Explorer, Firefox, or Safari on PCs running Windows, Linux or Apple operating systems.

Richer customer experiences at your service

Ask IT leaders these days what their biggest challenges are for 2024 and it’s likely that improving customer experience will be a key objective. And even though this is nothing new – in fact, it has been going on over the past decade, accelerated by the pandemic and significant global macroeconomic developments, businesses across industries have intensified their efforts to deliver high-quality customer experience (CX).

And while making predictions is generally a mug’s game, it’s fairly certain you will see over the course of 2024 a shift in the industry for firms to expand their focus beyond the conventional CX parameters to enhance customers’ overall perception of their firm at every touchpoint, many of which are now digital. You are also going to see further integration of traditional collaboration, communications and contact centre technologies into services that can not only drive collaboration across your business functions, but also drive benefit within the operations of your company by being fully focused on your customers.

The IT industry is increasingly getting the bigger picture on this. Businesses are rapidly seeing that CX and employee experience (EX) can be crucial differentiators and key drivers of their performance. Industry leaders are working to the principle that successful brands will need to differentiate themselves on customer experience and not necessarily on the traditional pillars of product, price and availability. That is to say, how does a brand make you feel and how is it delivered in a fully omni-channel business environment.

These sentiments are also being recognised at board level. A study from NTT – the IT infrastructure and services company’s 2023 Global customer experience report – observed that CX remains a top C-suite priority, with 95% of organisations now having a named C-suite executive responsible for this business area while EX has risen in importance to become a top-three priority for CEOs.

NTT also found that CX has now been proven to foster long-term customer trust and loyalty while having a measurable effect on the bottom line, so it has become a priority for C-suite executives and therefore garnered investment in technologies that support the organisation’s CX strategy at every touchpoint, in both the contact centre and the broader business.

Some 92% of CEOs interviewed for the report saw CX improvements as potentially being able to directly impact their net profit, with EX up 91%. This has elevated CX to board and C-suite level, with 95% of organisations now having a specific C-suite executive responsible for CX, up from 75% in 2021. Yet NTT cautioned that there was clear room for improvement, as over 80% of organisations agree that CX and EX are currently a weak link for them, leading to a negative impact on their business.

Additionally, it showed that once organisations want to strengthen their CX, they consider enhancements that include developing an EX strategy that incorporates technology and goes beyond staff well-being, moving to cloud-based CX and EX platforms, and deploying AI and machine learning. The latter two are really where a lot of action has recently been and will be in future.

Generative CX

In October 2023, comms and customer experience technology provider Avaya launched its Generative CX concept, what it said was a pitch to set a new standard for AI-based use cases spanning agent experience to customer satisfaction to operations. The move sees generative AI technology and capabilities integrated in the core Avaya Experience Platform (AXP) to help CX practitioners implement workflows and gain actionable insights.

As it explained the rationale for its move, Avaya said its customers were looking to bring AI, on a large scale, into their contact centres, and in a way that brings AI to the core of their CX transformation. Yet it also said that until now, AI in the contact centre has typically been at the front end, usually answering routine questions from customers in the form of intelligent virtual assistants. The launch was aimed at demonstrating how AI can also be extended to the heart of contact centres, creating workflows, reports and helping agents better serve customers.

Explaining why AI is essential in the days of the experience-focused business, chief product officer Omar Javaid says: “Generative AI, specifically large language models, is an early field – there’s a lot of interest in it. There are a number of different technology vectors – broadband cost, speed, processor, power storage – converged.

“It’s become real now. Their customers are at the nexus of a lot of human interaction,” he says. “We have very, very large customers, such as airlines, and they may have thousands of contact centre agents. Just think about how they’ve done that business for decades. You have all of this customer data. You have call detail records (CDRs); you have real voice recordings. Then you also have patterns of how those users behave. Whether they came to you via a website via chat, via a phone call and all this kind of stuff.

“You can actually build these really interesting [models] and then you can incorporate all of the internal knowledge management of a company,” says Javaid. “And the net benefit of it is that the technology is here so you can create interesting experiences and products using these large language models. Let’s say you’re an airline and you have 20,000 contact centre agents, and you’ve had that call centre for 20 years and it works really well, but now you want your customers to be able to communicate with you on WhatsApp, on WeChat, all these different sorts of things, and maybe you want to do an AI bot.”

Smooth transition

One thing Javaid was hurry to stress was that such a transition, necessary as it is, should not have to entail wholesale changes for companies, especially having to rip out and replace existing contact centre infrastructure and transition to new products to get all of the new benefits to do all these new things. He argues that you should be able to plug in capabilities such as chat, app integration, AI bots and advanced analytics into existing on-premise infrastructure and innovate around it.

Zoom is another company that is making a huge investment in AI to develop systems intended to elevate customer experiences. Indeed, the collaboration and communications company regards AI as key to driving the firm to new levels in 2024 with its new GenAI technology to be the cornerstone of hybrid workspace, where it said technology aligns with real user needs.

“Expectations have really changed for how their customers engage with their customers,” says Zoom chief product officer Smita Hashim, speaking with Computer Weekly in November 2023. “We had a webinar product from the early days, and they have been expanding into hybrid events. They have their contact centre, which has been growing really nicely, again built very much with hybrid in mind. It’s a full suite with a virtual agent, and it has workforce engagement management scheduling and quality management.”

Hashim believes Zoom is taking a unique approach in how it’s implementing a GenAI assistant. “Some of the folks in the market have gone with one very large foundational model, most notably Open AI, but for us, what they take is a federated approach. Early on, this is a very dynamic space, and you don’t need to use really large models for all use cases.”

One thing about these use cases is that they will be supporting totally personalised experiences, based on an AI model that is engaged and intercepting every step of the customer journey, enabling you to predict and understand patterns of behaviour and even create new business contexts that your company could benefit from.

Adopting a customer experience-focused approach could result in direct revenue gains through the new role of chief experience officer. Already, tech firms are seeing the synergies between revenue and customer experiences and giving the same person responsibility for both.

One leading tech firm is taking this approach to drive a customer-centric focus across all operational functions of her company, being in charge of sales while representing the voice of the customer to arrive at a customer-driven culture through ensuring ease of doing business, and reducing and eliminating friction.

The tech company says the starting position is showing up with a point of view and understanding your business. Are there new revenue streams that you want to create for your business? This then translates to customer conversations. It believes that if you’re the voice of the customer in your firm, you’ll know your customer’s business and discover where they are today and where they want to go.

This means the contact centre is now transforming into an experience centre where your customers are reaching out to you in many different ways. It’s not just voice. It’s not just email. It’s not just social or video. It’s all a digital experience. That’s what will keep your customers. It’s not just the technology. You deliver a customer experience in a way that builds loyalty and then impacts revenue positively. And that changes the whole concept of customer culture from transactional-based relationships to personal experiences.

The Best Real Estate CRM Of 2024

As they were choosing the best CRM for real estate agents, they considered all of the factors that make the needs of a real estate agent unique and important. They looked at everything from pricing and ease of use to the specific real estate industry features that are available. Let’s take a look at the most important criteria that impacted their recommendations.


We wanted to make sure that all the options on this list were affordable for what each offered. The value for the amount you’ll have to spend was weighed to make sure that each solution is a viable candidate to use compared to the competition. Additionally, they looked at the range of prices between plans and the value that each higher-priced plan brings to the user. They also looked for transparent pricing by a provider as some require potential customers to contact their sales department to receive a quote. This accounted for 10% of their weighted scoring.


We looked for how the features meet the specific needs of real estate agents and teams. Real estate agents need more direct messaging features with easy access to history since some customers won’t provide repeat business for years to come. Being able to easily communicate with leads, prospects and past customers in different ways was a necessity. Other features they considered for essential included pipeline management, analytics tools, custom dashboards, document libraries, third-party integrations, mobile apps and multicurrency support. They weighted features at 55% of their total score.

Third-party Reviews

We researched reviews from real users to gauge their opinion of each platform. This entailed ranking both the overall score from customers and the number of reviews on site that included G2 and Capterra for these scores to give the fullest picture of reality and reduce bias. These accounted for 5% of the total score.

Expert Analysis

Our experts preferred software that was not only easy to navigate and use without any customizations but also one that is easy to make needed changes without a tech team. Agents don’t have a lot of extra time to learn a complicated CRM system, so the more it just works with their natural workflow, the better.

Other factors they looked at include value for the money, popularity and stand-out features, such as customer support. Many real estate agents don’t have access to a tech team, so customer support on all software can be very important. Whether you might need help setting up integrations or just to get the software running, customer support plays a big role in finding any software—especially a CRM that you’ll be using every week.

Altogether, this analysis makes up 5% of the total score.

Starting Price

Free; $8 per user per month for basic features

Starting Price

Free; $20 per user per month (billed annually)

Starting Price

$14.90 per user per month


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug