Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : ACA-Cloud1
Exam Name : ACA Cloud Computing Certification Exam
Vendor Name : Alibaba
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Alibaba Cloud Certification Associate (ACA - Alibaba Cloud Certification Associate) is a certification designed for personnel who can use Alibaba Cloud Computing products. It covers all of Alibaba Cloud's core products from computing, storage, networking to security.

Exam Overview
Certification:ACA Cloud Computing Certification
Duration:90 minutes
Test type:Registration online and take the exam at offline exam center
Available Languages:English
Attention:Please note if you want to take the same certification exam again, you must have at least 14 days gap between the 2 exams.

Alibaba Cloud Certification Associate (ACA - Alibaba Cloud Certification Associate) is a certification technical designed for personnel who can use Alibaba Cloud Computing products. It covers Alibaba Cloud's core products including computing, storage, networking and security. This certification assesses the certificate holders' possession of the following capabilities:
● Has general knowledge of IT, Cloud Computing and Network Security.
● Is able to develop general solutions and enterprise best practices based on Alibaba Cloud's products and business needs.
● Has knowledge in the use and operation of Alibaba Cloud's ECS, Server Load Balancers, OSS, VPC, Auto Scaling, CDN, Alibaba Cloud Security and CloudMonitor products.

Alibaba Cloud-related knowledge:
● Familiar with the concepts of Alibaba Cloud Computing related products, including ECS, Server Load Balancers, Auto Scaling, OSS, Alibaba Cloud Security services and CloudMonitor (the same below).
● Aware of main application scenarios of Alibaba Cloud Computing-related products and how they shall be used together.
● Familiar with operations of Alibaba Cloud Computing-related products, including activating, creating, configuring, starting and stopping and deleting a service instance.
● Familiar with features of Alibaba Cloud Computing-related products and key product implementation principles.
● Able to discover and resolve common issues emerged during the use of Alibaba Cloud Computing-related products.

ECS 30%
Server Load Balancer 20%
Object Storage Service (OSS) 15%
Relation Database (RDS) 10%
Auto Scaling 10%
Alibaba Cloud Security Service and Cloud Monitor 10%
General knowledge about Cloud Computing 5%

ECS:
✓ Familiar with ECS-related concepts, including regions and zones, instances, disks, snapshots, images, networks, and security groups.
✓ Has knowledge about the advantages, billing policies, application scenarios, APIs and SDKs of ECS.
✓ Able to deploy applications based on ECS products.
✓ Familiar with the usage and operations of ECS instances, disks, security groups, snapshots, images and tags.
● Auto Scaling:
✓ Familiar with the basic concepts related to Auto Scaling, including scaling groups, scaling configuration, scaling rules, scaling activities, scaling trigger tasks, scaling mode and freezing time.
✓ Familiar with Auto Scaling features, product advantages and common application scenarios.
● Server Load Balancer:
✓ Familiar with Server Load Balancer-related basic concepts and features, including the Server Load Balancer definition, implementation principles, supported protocols, session persistence, health checks, backend server weights, certificates, and forwarding policies.
✓ Familiar with Server Load Balancers product advantages and its application scenarios.
✓ Has knowledge about usage, operation and maintenance of Server Load Balancers, including Server Load Balancer configuration, maintenance, precautions, and problem identification and handling.
● OSS:
✓ Familiar with the OSS-related concepts, including regions, buckets, objects, anti-leech, and object lifecycle management.
✓ Has knowledge about the advantages, application scenarios and billing models of OSS products.
✓ Has knowledge about the management, use and operations of OSS buckets and objects.
● RDS:
✓ Familiar with the RDS-related concepts and the database type supported, include MySQL, SQL Server, PostgreSQL and PPAS.
✓ Has knowledge about the advantages, application scenarios and billing models of RDS products.
✓ Has knowledge about the management, use and operations of RDS instance, such as connecting to RDS, read only and backup, etc.
● Alibaba Cloud Security services and CloudMonitor:
✓ Has basic security awareness and security basics of using Cloud services. ✓ Has knowledge about Alibaba Cloud Security series, such as Anti-DDoS Basic, Anti-DDoS Pro, Security Center and CloudMonitor.
● General knowledge about Cloud Computing:
✓ Practitioners in the cloud computing field are required to possess basic knowledge about the related concepts, technologies and cloud computing advantages, including the definition, features, advantages, service types, implementation technologies and deployment methods of cloud computing.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug