Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Frequently Asked Questions - Certified Court Interpreters

In which languages may one become a certified court interpreter?

Washington offers certification in the following languages: Arabic, Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, Cantonese, French, Khmer, Korean, Laotian, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Tagalog (Filipino), and Vietnamese.

Anyone who wants to interpret in these languages in a legal proceeding must pass the state certification exam, which consists of a written component and an oral component. Candidates are tested on their knowledge of vocabulary, ethics, and court terminology on the written portion of the exam. Those who pass the written component are eligible to take the oral component, which tests their skills in simultaneous and consecutive interpretation and sight translation.

What is the difference between certified and registered court Interpreters?

To become certified, interpreters must pass a rigorous exam testing their ability to interpret accurately in English and their non-English language in the three interpreting modes: consecutive, simultaneous, and sight translation.

These national certification exams are costly and time-consuming to develop and maintain, and therefore are only available in the most commonly used languages.

The registered credential was adopted in Washington in 2007 to provide a measurement of quality for interpreters of non-certifiable languages. To become registered interpreters are not tested in interpreting skills, but rather their ability to speak and comprehend the non-English and English language. All other requirements (written exam, mandatory classes, oath, and criminal background check) are the same as for interpreters seeking to become certified.

What are the criteria to become a certified court interpreter?

  • Pass the written exam administered by the Administrative Office of the Courts (AOC) with a score of 80% or better.
  • Complete the orientation program on interpreting skills sponsored by the AOC.
  • Pass the oral interpreting exam administered by the AOC with a score of at least 70% in each section.
  • Submit a completed fingerprint card and application fee to the AOC. (The AOC will submit the fingerprint card to the Washington State Patrol for processing.)
  • Attend a mandatory class sponsored by the AOC on courtroom protocol and interpreter ethics.
  • Take the Oath of Interpreter to abide by the Court Interpreter Code of Professional Responsibility for Judiciary Interpreters.
  • Obtain an interpreter ID badge for court proceedings.
  • What is the cost to become a certified court interpreter?

    The cost to take the Written exam is $75. The cost for the Oral exam is $300 for Washington State residents and $550 for out-of-state residents. The classes are offered at no charge. The cost of the criminal background check is approximately $30.

    What advantages do I have as a certified court interpreter?

    By securing your credentials as a certified interpreter, your contact information will be available on the Administrative Office of the Courts' website, which is accessed by courts, interpreter coordinators, law offices, and other agencies seeking credentialed language interpreters. Many private businesses also use credentialed court interpreters since they have demonstrated their interpreting skills.

    Courts are required by RCW 2.43.030(1)(b) to use the services of only those interpreters who are certified by the Administrative Office of the courts, unless good cause is found and noted on the record. By being a certified court interpreter, you will have an advantage to be hired over un-credentialed interpreters in your language.

    What is a court interpreter?

    A court interpreter is anyone who interprets in a civil or criminal court proceeding (e.g., arraignment, motion, hearing, deposition, trial) for a witness or defendant who speaks or understands little or no English. Court interpreters must accurately interpret in the simultaneous and consecutive modes for individuals with a high level of education and an extensive vocabulary, as well as persons with very limited language skills without changing the language register of the speaker. Interpreters are also sometimes responsible for sight translating written documents, often of a legal nature, from English into the target language and from the target language into English.

    What kinds of skills does it take to be a good court interpreter?

    In addition to total fluency in both English and the foreign language, a court interpreter should have excellent public speaking and interpersonal skills. Sometimes the testimony to be interpreted is shocking and traumatic and the interpreter must be able to deal with such matters without becoming emotionally involved. The interpreter must also be able to refrain from expressing personal opinions or acting as an advocate for one side or the other in a court case, and must be able to work unobtrusively. The interpreter must be willing to work well under pressure and react quickly to solve complex linguistic and ethical problems as they arise. On the other hand, when a problem cannot be solved by the interpreter alone, the interpreter must demonstrate the good judgment required to inform the court of that fact and take whatever steps are necessary to resolve the situation. Finally, good court interpreters constantly strive to Strengthen their skills by reading from a wide variety of sources, attending conferences, researching new terms and concepts, and honing their interpreting techniques.

    Is special training required to become a court interpreter?

    Yes, court interpreting is a very demanding profession that requires complete fluency in both English and the foreign language. The level of expertise required for this profession is far greater than that required for everyday bilingual conversation. The interpreter must be able to deal with the specialized language of judges and attorneys, as well as with the street slang of witnesses and the technical jargon of criminologists, police officers, and expert witnesses. Most people do not have full command of all registers of both English and the foreign language and, therefore, require special training to acquire it. Although there are no minimum requirements that must be met in order to apply to take the state certification test, applicants are encouraged to complete formal, college-level course work and training in both languages and modes of interpreting before applying for the examination. Bellevue College offers some courses. They encourage you to contact local colleges and request information about their programs. If no college-level courses are available, the following self-study techniques are suggested: (1) expand your vocabulary, (2) develop your own glossaries, and (3) develop interpreting techniques. In order to pass the certification examinations you must enhance your skills in (1) consecutive interpretation, (2) simultaneous interpretation, and (3) sight translation.

    What is the job market like for court interpreters?

    There is a great demand for court interpreters in areas with large immigrant populations. Most court interpreters work as independent contractors (freelancers), meaning that they are hired on an hourly basis, rather than being permanent employees of the trial courts. A freelance interpreter must be willing to travel from one trial court to another, perhaps even from one county trial court system to another depending on the language, in order to make a living as an interpreter. Court interpreters are generally paid by the hour.

    How will courts recognize my status as a certified court interpreter?

    As a certified court interpreter, you will receive an ID badge to wear during your work as an interpreter. They encourage you to wear your badge at all court-related jobs and they request that judges, court clerks, and court administrators ask to see your badge when you appear for jobs. Your name will also be listed on Washington's list of credentialed interpreters.

    Who establishes the rules and requirements for becoming a certified court interpreter?

    The Supreme Court established the Court Interpreter Commission through General Rule 11.1. The Commission is responsible for maintaining a policy manual for the interpreter program and staffing committees on Issues, Discipline, and Judicial and Court Manager Education.

    Once I become a certified court interpreter, are there ongoing requirements to remain certified?

    Yes, to maintain a certified status, at the completion of each two-year compliance period, interpreters must complete and submit the following to the Administrative Office of the Courts:

  • 16 hours of continuing education (two of which must be ethics)
  • 20 hours of court interpreting
  • A declaration regarding personal conduct

    All continuing education classes must be approved by the Administrative Office of the Courts. Interpreters are required to keep documentation of proof of compliance for five years.

    How are providers of continuing education activities for court interpreters selected?

    Interested continuing education providers must adhere to the guidelines developed by the Interpreter Commission. The providers must comply with guidelines for application procedures and provider responsibilities.

    Where can I obtain more information about becoming a court interpreter?

    Professional associations may offer workshops and conferences at which novices are welcome. Introductory courses in court interpreting at colleges and universities are also good sources of information. They encourage you to contact them. Attending court sessions at your local courthouse will deliver you a good idea of the kinds of proceedings in which you will be expected to interpret, and you may be able to observe a court interpreter at work.

    How do I sign up for the testing and training process?

    The process of becoming a certified court interpreter begins with taking and passing the written exam. That exam is typically administered in February in both Eastern and Western Washington. Registration is open during the month of January, and at that time, all necessary forms are available on their website.

    Who do I contact to find out more about the Certified Court Interpreter Program?

    If you have additional questions after reviewing the certified court interpreter information, please contact Interpreters@courts.wa.gov.

    Updated April 2021

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug