Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : AEPA
Exam Name : Arizona Educator Proficiency Assessments
Vendor Name : Arizona-Education
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Title: Arizona Educator Proficiency Assessments (AEPA)

Test Detail:
The Arizona Educator Proficiency Assessments (AEPA) is a series of exams designed to measure the knowledge and skills of prospective educators in Arizona. These exams are used to ensure that candidates meet the state's standards for teacher licensure and certification. The AEPA exams cover a wide range of subjects and grade levels, allowing candidates to demonstrate their proficiency in specific content areas.

Course Outline:
The AEPA exams cover various subject areas and grade levels, depending on the specific certification sought by the candidate. The following is a general outline of the key areas covered in the AEPA exams:

1. Test Preparation:
- Understanding the structure and format of the AEPA exams
- Reviewing test-taking strategies and tips
- Familiarizing with the exam objectives and content domains
- Accessing study materials and resources

2. Subject-Specific Content:
- Reviewing subject-specific knowledge and skills
- Understanding the Arizona Academic Standards for the subject area
- Demonstrating proficiency in the key concepts, theories, and practices
- Applying content knowledge to real-world scenarios

3. Pedagogy and Professional Responsibilities:
- Understanding effective instructional strategies and practices
- Demonstrating knowledge of student development and learning theories
- Assessing student performance and providing feedback
- Understanding legal and ethical responsibilities of educators

4. Classroom Management and Communication:
- Creating a positive and inclusive learning environment
- Managing classroom behavior and promoting student engagement
- Communicating effectively with students, parents, and colleagues
- Utilizing technology and resources for instruction and communication

Exam Objectives:
The specific exam objectives for each AEPA exam vary based on the subject and grade level being tested. However, the general objectives of the AEPA exams include, but are not limited to:

1. Demonstrating knowledge and understanding of subject-specific content.
2. Applying pedagogical practices and strategies for effective teaching.
3. Assessing student learning and providing appropriate feedback.
4. Managing the classroom and promoting a positive learning environment.
5. Complying with professional responsibilities and ethical guidelines.

The AEPA exams cover a broad range of subjects and grade levels, each with its own syllabus and content domains. The syllabus provides a breakdown of the courses covered in each exam, including specific content areas and associated competencies. It may include the following components:

- Test structure and format
- Content domains and weighting
- Key concepts, theories, and practices
- Instructional strategies and pedagogical knowledge
- Classroom management and communication skills
- Professional responsibilities and ethical guidelines

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  • Arizona Attorney General issues tips to maintain privacy when seeking abortions

    Arizona Attorney General Kris Mayes issued a new consumer guidance amid concerns about abortion laws and access in the state and nationwide.

    The office's consumer alert on "protecting privacy when seeking reproductive health care" entails steps for women who may be seeking "abortion care." For example, it encourages women to only speak with a limited number of people, including "licensed medical professionals." The alert also suggests that consumers are mindful when inquiring about "abortion care" online or through an app.

    "In a world in which they do everything online, many individuals leave a trail in their web browsing, search history, map history, and other application data," Attorney General Kris Mayes said in a statement Wednesday. "While abortion remains legal in Arizona, the legal landscape around this issue remains in flux, and it is important for individuals to be aware of the digital footprint they create so they can make informed decisions about protecting their data privacy."

    "Consumers do not need to justify their desire to protect their privacy to the government or for-profit companies – privacy should be the default presumption," she added. "Consumer education around data privacy management is vitally important in a world in which data lives forever. This guidance provides simple tips to empower consumers to manage their data privacy."

    Notably, the alert also suggests that women need to be careful with period-tracking apps and how they gather and use data.

    "Recently, news reports have suggested that some period-tracking and pregnancy apps are selling or sharing personal information with advertisers and data brokers. Carefully review the privacy policies of these apps," the guidance states. "If you wish to stop using one of these apps, review the privacy policies to determine whether you can request they delete personal information and whether you can opt out of the app selling your personal information to third parties."

    Mayes held a roundtable discussion with advocacy groups on Wednesday in order to discuss the guidelines along with other abortion access-related issues. Arizona currently has a 15-week ban on the books, which was signed into law by former Gov. Doug Ducey in March 2022, and a state court affirmed that it would be in place instead of a broader ban from when Arizona was a territory in December.

    Following the Dobbs decision that effectively overturned Roe v. Wade, abortion is now an issue left largely up to the states. Pro-choicers in Arizona are pushing for a ballot initiative to have abortion access placed into the state's constitution, The Center Square reported earlier in August.

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug