Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : ANP-BC
Exam Name : ANCC Adult Nurse Practitioner
Vendor Name : ANCC
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ANP-BC exam Format | ANP-BC Course Contents | ANP-BC Course Outline | ANP-BC exam Syllabus | ANP-BC exam Objectives


Category Content Domain Number of Questions Percentage

I Assessment 31 21%

II Diagnosis 39 26%

III Clinical Management 65 43%

IV Professional Role 15 10%

TOTAL 150 100%



Body Systems Drug Agents Age Group

1. Cardiovascular 1. Analgesic 1. Infant

2. Endocrine 2. Anti-Infective 2. Preschool

3. Gastrointestinal 3. Cardiovascular 3. School-Age

4. Genitourinary and Renal 4. Endocrine 4. Adolescent

5. Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat 5. Eye, Ear, Nose and Skin 5. Young Adult (including late adolescent and emancipated minors)

6. Hematopoietic* 6. Gastrointestinal 6. Adult

7. Immune* 7. Genitourologic 7. Older Adult

8. Integumentary 8. Musculoskeletal 8. Frail Elderly

9. Musculoskeletal 9. Neurological

10. Neurological 10. Psychiatric

11. Psychiatric 11. Reproductive

12. Reproductive 12. Respiratory

13. Respiratory



Assessment

A. Knowledge

1. Evidence-based population health promotion and screening

B. Skill

1. Comprehensive history and physical exam

2. Focused history and physical exam

3. Risk exam (e.g., genetic, behavioral, lifestyle)

4. Functional exam (e.g., cognitive, developmental, physical capacity)

II Diagnosis

A. Knowledge

1. Pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of disease states

B. Skill

1. Differentiating between normal and abnormal physiologic or psychiatric changes

2. Diagnostic test selection and evaluation

III Clinical Management

A. Knowledge

1. Pharmacotherapeutics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenetics

2. Anticipatory guidance (e.g., developmental, behavioral, disease progression, crisis management, end-of-life care)

3. Age-appropriate primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions

B. Skill

1. Pharmacotherapeutic intervention selection (e.g., interactions, contraindications)

2. Pharmacotherapeutic intervention evaluation (e.g., monitoring, side/adverse effects, patient outcomes)

3. Non-pharmacologic intervention selection and evaluation

4. Therapeutic communication (e.g., motivational interviewing, shared decision making)

5. Culturally congruent practice

6. Resource management (e.g., accessibility, coordination, cost effectiveness)

IV Professional Role

A. Knowledge

1. Legal and ethical considerations for health care informatics and technology (e.g., confidentiality, accessibility)

2. Scope and standards for advanced practice registered nurses

3. Regulatory guidelines (e.g., reportable diseases, abuse reporting)

4. Evidence-based clinical guidelines and standards of care

5. Ethical and legal principles and issues for patients, populations, and systems (e.g., justice, consent, guardianship, bioethics)

B. Skill

1. Research appraisal (e.g., design, results, clinical applicability)



The ANCC Family Nurse Practitioner board certification examination is a competency based examination that provides a valid and reliable exam of the entry-level clinical knowledge and skills of nurse practitioners. This certification aligns with the Consensus Model for APRN Regulation: Licensure, Accreditation, Certification and Education. Once you complete eligibility requirements to take the certification examination and successfully pass the exam, you are awarded the credential: Family Nurse Practitioner-Board Certified (FNP-BC). This credential is valid for 5 years. You can continue to use this credential by maintaining your license to practice and meeting the renewal requirements in place at the time of your certification renewal. The Accreditation Board for Specialty Nursing Certification accredits this ANCC certification.



The ANCC certification examinations are developed consistent with the technical guidelines recommended by the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education (AERA, APA, NCME; 1999). Additionally, the ANCC certification examinations meet accreditation standards of the Accreditation Board for Specialty Nursing Certification(ABSNC) and the National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA).
Each examination is developed by ANCC in cooperation with a Content Expert Panel (CEP) composed ofcarefully selected experts in the field. CEPs analyze the professional skills and abilities from role delineationstudies, which provide the evidence for the test content outline (also called the test blueprint).



Test questions or “items” are written by certified nurses and interprofessional content experts in their discipline who have received training by ANCC staff in writing items. The items are then reviewed by the CEP with the ANCC staff and pilot-tested to ensure validity and psychometric quality before being used as scored items on the actual examinations. ANCC adheres to a variety of guidelines during the development of items to ensure that the items are appropriate for the specialty and certification level (e.g., APRN vs. RN). This includes editing and coding items, referencing items to the approved test
content outlines and reference books, and screening items for bias and stereotypes.
Items for the examinations are selected that reflect the test content outline and item distributions.
The validity and reliability of the exams are monitored by ANCC staff. Certification examinations are updated approximately every three to five years.



ANCC reports its examinees test score results as pass or fail. If an examinee fails, the score report includes diagnostic feedback for each of the major content areas covered on the examination.

ANCC examinations are criterion-referenced tests, which means that an examinees performance on the examination is not compared to that of other examinees in determining the examinees pass/fail status.

In a criterion-referenced test, an examinee must achieve a score equal to or greater than the minimum passing score for the examination. The minimum passing score represents the absolute minimum standards that the examinee must achieve to demonstrate the ability to practice the profession safely and competently. With the guidance of a measurement expert (e.g., a psychometrician), a panel of subject matter experts in the nursing specialty sets the minimum passing score for each ANCC
examination. In setting the minimum passing score, ANCC uses the Modified Angoff Method, which is well-recognized within the measurement field.

Each exam contains between 150 to 175 scored test items plus 25 pilot test items that do not count towards the final score. For specific information on the number of items each exam contains, please refer to the test content outline associated with that exam.

Scores on ANCC examinations are reported on a scale with a maximum possible score of 500. To pass the ANCC examination, an examinee must achieve a scale score of 350 or higher. Prior to conversion of an examinees score to this scale, the examinees raw score on the examination is determined, which is simplythe number of test items that the examinee answered correctly (e.g., 105 out of 150). The raw score is then converted to a scale score, using a conversion formula.

For examinees who do not achieve a scale score of at least 350, the score report will show the scale score achieved, “fail” status, and diagnostic feedback for each of the content areas covered by the examination



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug