Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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API API-571 : Corrosion and Materials Professional ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : API-571
Exam Name : Corrosion and Materials Professional
Vendor Name : API
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API-571 test Format | API-571 Course Contents | API-571 Course Outline | API-571 test Syllabus | API-571 test Objectives

Exam Detail:
The API-571 Corrosion and Materials Professional certification test is designed to assess the knowledge and expertise of professionals working in the field of corrosion control and materials selection in the oil and gas industry. Here are the test details for API-571:

- Number of Questions: The test consists of 100 multiple-choice questions.

- Time Limit: The time allocated to complete the test is 3.5 hours.

Course Outline:
The API-571 certification is based on a comprehensive body of knowledge that covers various aspects of corrosion and materials in the industry. The course outline generally includes the following areas:

1. Corrosion Control:
- Corrosion mechanisms and types.
- Corrosion monitoring and inspection techniques.
- Corrosion prevention and control methods.

2. Corrosion Management:
- Risk test and management.
- Corrosion control documentation and procedures.
- Corrosion mitigation strategies.

3. Materials Selection and Design:
- Material properties and selection criteria.
- Material degradation mechanisms.
- Material selection for specific environments and applications.

4. Inspection and Testing:
- Non-destructive testing techniques.
- Material and coating evaluation methods.
- Failure analysis and root cause determination.

5. Corrosion in Specific Environments:
- Corrosion in pipelines and vessels.
- Corrosion in refining and chemical processing.
- Corrosion in offshore and marine environments.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the API-571 test are as follows:

- Assessing candidates' understanding of corrosion mechanisms and types.
- Evaluating candidates' knowledge of corrosion monitoring and inspection techniques.
- Testing candidates' proficiency in corrosion prevention and control methods.
- Assessing candidates' familiarity with materials selection criteria and material degradation mechanisms.
- Evaluating candidates' understanding of non-destructive testing techniques and failure analysis.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific test syllabus for the API-571 test covers a wide range of courses related to corrosion and materials. The syllabus includes:

1. Corrosion Mechanisms:
- Uniform corrosion.
- Galvanic corrosion.
- Pitting corrosion.
- Crevice corrosion.
- Stress corrosion cracking.
- H2S corrosion.

2. Corrosion Monitoring and Inspection:
- Corrosion rate measurement.
- Cathodic protection monitoring.
- Corrosion coupon and probe monitoring.
- Visual inspection techniques.
- Ultrasonic testing.

3. Corrosion Prevention and Control:
- Protective coatings and linings.
- Cathodic protection systems.
- Inhibitors and corrosion inhibitors.
- Material selection for corrosion resistance.

4. Materials Selection and Design:
- Mechanical properties of materials.
- Chemical resistance of materials.
- Material selection for specific applications.
- Material degradation mechanisms.

5. Non-Destructive Testing:
- Ultrasonic testing.
- Magnetic particle testing.
- Liquid penetrant testing.
- Radiographic testing.

6. Failure Analysis and Root Cause Determination:
- Failure modes and mechanisms.
- Failure investigation techniques.
- Root cause analysis.

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API Professional techniques


The World Isn’t Ready for the Next Decade of AI

Gideon Lichfield: If I were a cynic, which of course I'm not at all …

Mustafa Suleyman: [Chuckle] Not at all.

Lauren Goode: Not Gideon.

Gideon Lichfield: I might say that you and the AI companies are setting up a pretty sweet deal for yourselves, because you're getting to say to government, “Look, you, government, can't possibly understand this stuff well enough to regulate it, so we're going to voluntarily set some guardrails, we're gonna drive the agenda, we're gonna decide how precautionary the precautionary principle needs to be.” And so I think the question I'm asking is, what is the incentive of the private sector which leads the conversation because it has the know-how to set standards that are actually good for society?

Mustafa Suleyman: If they could get formal regulation passed, I think that would be a good start. But you're right, good regulation, I think, is a function of very diverse groups of people speaking up and expressing their concerns and participating in the political process. And at the moment they are sort of overwhelmed by apathy and anger and polarization. And yet now is the critical moment, I think, where there's plenty of time, they have many years to try to get this right. I think they have a good decade where they can have the popular conversation, and that's partly what I'm trying to do with the book and partly what others are trying to do with the voluntary commitments too.

Gideon Lichfield: What are some of the scenarios that you predict that most people probably can't even imagine that might happen if they don't manage to keep these technologies under control?

Mustafa Suleyman: Well, I think in sort of 15 or 20 years' time, you could imagine very powerful non-state actors. So think drugs cartels, militias, organized criminals, just an organization with the intent and motivation to cause serious harm. And so if the barrier to entry to initiating and carrying out conflict, if that barrier to entry is going down rapidly, then the state has a challenging question, which is, How does it continue to protect the integrity of its own borders and the functioning of its own states? If smaller and smaller groups of people can wield state-like power, that is essentially the risk of the coming wave.

Lauren Goode: I'm so intrigued by what you're doing with Inflection, because when I think about your background, you've worked in politics, you've worked in social good, you, of course, ended up cofounding DeepMind and then worked at Google. But you also, you wrote a book and you seem to have these diplomatic intentions, you believe in collaboration. Why are you a startup founder?

Mustafa Suleyman: I'm happiest when I'm making things. Really what I love doing is deeply understanding how something works, and I like doing that at the micro level. I love going from micro to macro, but I can't stay just at macro. I am obsessed with doing on a daily basis, and I guess that's the entrepreneurial part of me. I love “What are they gonna ship tomorrow? What are they gonna make? What are they gonna build?” If I had to choose between the two, that's what makes me happiest, and that's what I like to do most of the time.

Java Joins the Ranks in Semantic Kernel SDK

Semantic Kernel, an SDK that meshes Large Language Models (LLMs) with popular programming languages, is now available for Java. Microsoft announced the arrival of the Java library in its exact blog post. Microsoft first open-sourced the Semantic Kernel earlier this year. Microsoft terms Semantic Kernel as a lightweight SDK enabling integration of AI LLMs. Other than Java, the Semantic Kernel SDK also supports C# and Python programming languages.

In July 2023, Microsoft also announced updates to the Semantic Kernel Tools. The Visual Studio Code extension now allows developers to measure the performance of different AI tools, and the API supports switching between different providers. Furthermore, integration to Azure Cognitive Search brings on Vector search capabilities to the Semantic Kernel as well. However, at this point, this feature is not available to Java developers.

Meanwhile, Java as a language itself is also undergoing changes, geared towards better native support for integration and computation. Developers increasingly recognize the need to utilize existing LLMs, a vital step for Java applications to fully adopt and benefit from modern development practices, such as integration with Generative AI. This approach to development has the potential to significantly enhance user experience and flexibility in application design and functionality.

The World Economic Forum, an influential international organization, has recognized the growing importance of Prompt Engineering in the tech industry. It even went as far as listing it as one of the top three emerging jobs, underscoring its significance. Prompt Engineering, a method that allows applications to leverage LLMs for a wide array of use cases, reshapes how applications are developed and can use LLMs for multiple vertical use cases. This can be particularly beneficial for developers working with Java, given its wide usage in many mission-critical and business systems. However, the challenge for prompt engineers is always problem formulation or asking the right questions and working with multiple prompts.

The Semantic Kernel SDK presents a solution to this challenge. It enables developers to use multiple prompts as skills, chain those prompts, and define contexts that are shared amongst prompts. For developers, it can also be viewed as management of the prompting pipeline and opinionated design patterns. Bruno Borges, principal product manager at Microsoft, provided some code snippets in his blog post. To delve deeper into these examples and to gain hands-on experience, developers are encouraged to explore the Semantic Kernel GitHub repository and particularly use the experimental-java branch.

This exact development underlines the continuing evolution of AI integration within popular programming languages. As LLMs become more sophisticated and their applications more diverse, tools like the Semantic Kernel SDK will be increasingly important in allowing developers to harness their potential effectively and efficiently.

Multi-Asset Risk System (MARS) API

No result found, try new keyword!Built on top of Bloomberg’s Server API (SAPI) and B-PIPE platform, MARS API provides over-the-counter derivative creation, pricing, Greeks calculation, stress testing, scenario analysis and ...

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug