Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : ASM
Exam Name : EXIN Agile Scrum Master
Vendor Name : Exin
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ASM test Format | ASM Course Contents | ASM Course Outline | ASM test Syllabus | ASM test Objectives


Test Detail:
The EXIN Agile Scrum Master (ASM) certification test is designed to assess an individual's knowledge and understanding of Agile principles and Scrum framework. The test evaluates the candidate's ability to apply Agile and Scrum practices in real-world scenarios and projects. It tests their proficiency in facilitating Agile teams, managing Agile projects, and ensuring successful Agile implementation. This certification is ideal for professionals who want to enhance their Agile project management skills and contribute to the success of Agile initiatives.

Course Outline:
The EXIN Agile Scrum Master course provides participants with comprehensive knowledge and practical skills in Agile and Scrum practices. The following is a general outline of the key areas covered in the certification program:

1. Introduction to Agile and Scrum:
- Understanding the Agile principles and values.
- Exploring the Scrum framework and its roles, events, and artifacts.
- Comparing Agile and traditional project management approaches.
- Recognizing the benefits and challenges of Agile adoption.

2. Scrum Roles and Responsibilities:
- Understanding the roles and responsibilities of the Scrum Master, Product Owner, and Development Team.
- Facilitating effective collaboration and communication within the Scrum team.
- Coaching and supporting team members in adopting Agile practices.
- Managing stakeholders and their expectations.

3. Scrum Events and Artifacts:
- Understanding the purpose and structure of Scrum events (Sprint Planning, Daily Scrum, Sprint Review, and Sprint Retrospective).
- Applying Agile estimation and planning techniques.
- Creating and managing the product backlog.
- Monitoring and visualizing progress using Agile metrics and artifacts.

4. Agile Planning and Monitoring:
- Defining the product vision and creating a product roadmap.
- Prioritizing and managing the product backlog.
- Planning and executing Agile releases and iterations.
- Monitoring and adapting Agile projects using feedback and metrics.

5. Agile Facilitation and Collaboration:
- Facilitating effective Agile meetings and workshops.
- Promoting self-organization and empowerment within Agile teams.
- Resolving conflicts and fostering collaboration.
- Applying Agile leadership and servant leadership principles.

6. Agile Scaling and Adoption:
- Scaling Agile practices for larger projects and organizations.
- Understanding Agile frameworks beyond Scrum (e.g., Kanban, Lean, XP).
- Overcoming challenges in Agile adoption.
- Continuous improvement and Agile maturity.

Exam Objectives:
The EXIN Agile Scrum Master test assesses candidates' knowledge and practical skills in Agile and Scrum practices. The test objectives include, but are not limited to:

1. Understanding Agile principles, values, and mindset.
2. Demonstrating knowledge of the Scrum framework and its roles, events, and artifacts.
3. Applying Agile planning and estimation techniques.
4. Facilitating effective Agile meetings and collaboration.
5. Managing Agile projects, including monitoring, adaptation, and risk management.
6. Understanding Agile scaling approaches and adoption strategies.

Syllabus:
The EXIN Agile Scrum Master certification program typically includes comprehensive training provided by authorized EXIN training partners. The syllabus provides a breakdown of the syllabus covered throughout the course, including specific learning objectives and milestones. The syllabus may include the following components:

- Introduction to Agile and Scrum.
- Scrum roles, events, and artifacts.
- Agile planning and estimation techniques.
- Agile facilitation and collaboration.
- Agile project monitoring and adaptation.
- Agile scaling and adoption.
- test preparation and practice tests.
- Final EXIN Agile Scrum Master Certification Exam.



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    Maximum Marks

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    Objective type Multiple Choice

    150 marks

    2 hours

    Also Check,


    Haryana Board Class 12 Accountancy Model Paper 2024: obtain PDF and Solve Now!

    Haryana Class 12 Accounts Model Paper 2024: The Board of School Education Haryana (BSEH) has released the Haryana Board Class 12 Accountancy Model Paper 2024 for students to practice for the upcoming annual examinations. The BSEH Class 12 Accounts demo Paper 2024 is available on the official website at bseh.org.in in PDF format.The Haryana Board 12th Accountancy Model Paper 2023-24 serves as a valuable resource for students preparing for their upcoming exams. This meticulously crafted model paper is designed by experts to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the test pattern, question types, and the depth of knowledge expected at the Class 12 level.As an integral component of the Haryana Board's educational framework, the model paper aims to facilitate effective test preparation by offering a structured and representative demo of questions that align with the curriculum. Students can use this resource to assess their grasp of key accounting concepts, enhance their problem-solving skills, and familiarise themselves with the format and difficulty level of questions that may appear in the actual examination.The Haryana Board Class 12 Accountancy demo Paper provides a simulated testing environment that allows students to identify areas of strength and areas that may require additional focus. Furthermore, the model paper serves as a roadmap for effective study planning, enabling students to allocate their time and efforts efficiently across various syllabus within the accountancy syllabus. By incorporating this resource into their study routine, students can boost their confidence, refine their exam-taking strategies, and ultimately enhance their chances of success in the BSEH Class 12 Accounts test 2024.General Instructions:
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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug