Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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New rules for America’s green-hydrogen industry are controversial

A CURIOUS LETTER sent on November 6th recently surfaced in Washington, DC. On that day, nearly a dozen American senators sent a stern note to Janet Yellen, America’s treasury secretary, Jennifer Granholm, its energy secretary, and John Podesta, the senior adviser to the White House on clean energy. It was about the legal guidance they expected from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) on tax rules governing a generous new subsidy for “green” hydrogen. They insisted that the rules for this clean fuel, that can replace fossil fuels in hard-to-decarbonise industrial sectors like steel and chemicals, must be “a robust and flexible incentive that will catalyse and quickly scale a domestic hydrogen economy”.

That was but one heavyweight salvo in a months-long war waged by technology companies, environmental groups, energy lobbyists and business chambers over this previously obscure topic. To influence the handful of tax nerds and their political masters making this decision, millions have been spent on full-page advertisements in the New York Times and Washington Post, on podcasts and—to the bewilderment of punters looking for a mindless rom-com—on mainstream streaming services like Hulu.

Perhaps that was fitting, for the ruling looks to be a blockbuster. The long-delayed draft guidance on the 45V tax credit, as the proposal is formally known, was finally unveiled on December 22nd (the White House tried to bury the controversy in pre-Christmas distractions). Those senators calling for flexibility will not be pleased. There is always tension between growth and greenery in environmental regulation, and especially when it comes to writing rules for an industry that does not yet exist. The Biden administration has tilted strongly towards greenery in its proposals. In doing so it will probably kick up a hornet’s nest of industry protest.

The stage was set for this battle royal by the passage last year of the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), America’s landmark climate law that offers the world’s most generous subsidy ($3/kg) for making the greenest sort of hydrogen from renewable energy, as well as smaller subsidies for making low-carbon hydrogen in other ways. Because Congress declined to cap this subsidy, potentially hundreds of billions of dollars are at stake in the coming decade. Though Europe led the world in developing clean hydrogen, the Hydrogen Council, an industry association, has found that the IRA lured many potential investors to its side of the Atlantic with proposed investments in hydrogen as of January at $46bn, up from just $29bn in May 2022.

The green trade-off arises because making the cleanest sort of hydrogen involves the use of electrolysers, fancy bits of kit that separate water into its constituent hydrogen and oxygen using a lot of electricity. As an influential study done by Jesse Jenkins and colleagues at Princeton University has shown, if those machines use grid power burning coal or natural gas then the resulting hydrogen (though clean in its end use) could pollute more over its life cycle than the hydrogen produced using fossil fuels today.

That is why it is vital to put in place three pillars as “guardrails” against greenwashing, argues Rachel Fakhry of the Natural Resources Defence Council, a prominent green group. One would require the renewable energy involved to be produced close to the point of use. Another, known as “additionality”, would require any clean power used to come from new, not currently operating, generation facilities. The final requirement is that the hydrogen produced be matched hour by hour with clean-energy production, rather than using annual matching of production. The IRS proposes strict criteria on all three fronts, earning praise from Ms Fakhry and other environmental advocates.

Predictably, some industry advocates are up in arms. Jason Grumet, boss of the American Clean Power Association, a big lobby representing renewables, hydrogen, technology and transmission firms, argues the new proposal contains “a fatal but fixable flaw”. While accepting the three pillars, he argues that the hourly matching provision is being imposed too aggressively and so will “discourage a significant majority of clean-power companies from investing in green hydrogen”. Potential financiers will worry that hourly matching is not even possible in all parts of America, and the reforms needed for it will take several years to come into effect.

Only a fifth of that $46bn in hydrogen projects identified by the Hydrogen Council has been firmly committed, in part because investors have been waiting for this tax ruling, and some of those will now be in jeopardy. Keith Martin, a 45V expert at Norton Rose Fulbright, a law firm, reckons “the Treasury has made it difficult to finance green-hydrogen projects” because it does not grandfather projects under construction before the introduction of the hourly-matching requirement in 2028. Bernd Heid of McKinsey, a consultancy, reckons the guidance could lead to an increase of $1/kg to $2.5/kg in the cost of producing green hydrogen compared with using annual time-matching and looser additionality standards, yielding a total cost of $2.7/kg to $4.5/kg depending on input costs. For comparison, the total cost of dirty hydrogen made from natural gas today is well under $2/kg.

Revealingly, though, some powerful industry voices do support this ruling. One is Andrés Gluski, head of AES, a utility investing in a $4bn green-hydrogen facility in northern Texas. He is confident his mega-project, which will use bespoke renewable energy made on site, will meet the tough new 45V proposals. Air Products, the world’s largest manufacturer of hydrogen, has made a $15bn global bet on clean hydrogen including a stake in that Texas facility. Seifi Ghasemi, its boss, applauds what he calls the “strong three-pillar” proposal which he reckons will stimulate investments while reducing emissions.

The schism suggests the trade-off between growth and greenery may not be as stark as it first seems. Guardrails are indeed needed to prevent greenwashing. This is especially true, notes Martin Tengler of BloombergNEF, an information firm, since making hydrogen with grid power is dirtier than, say, using grid power for electric vehicles (which are still cleaner than using petrol-fired engines). He argues that claims of a chilling effect on investment are overblown, and that although the pool of viable projects “is going to shrink, it is worth it”.

As the enthusiasm of the aspiring green-hydrogen tycoons reveals, there can be opportunity here in leapfrogging too. A big source of future revenue will be exports of green ammonia (a hydrogen derivative used in making fertiliser) to environmentally minded overseas markets like Japan and Europe, so long as it is demonstrably clean. Maria Martinez of Breakthrough Energy, a climate-policy organisation, argues that the draft rules put America’s hydrogen sector in alignment with Europe’s green rules, which will help those (like Air Products) hurry to export there.

The new proposals are now open for public comment for two months. An almighty scrum will surely take place in the new year, involving fulmination from those senators whose advice was ignored. This will probably result in some modification of the strictest provisions. Even so, America looks likely to have pretty green rules for its nascent green-hydrogen sector. The open question is whether the resulting boost for leapfroggers will outweigh the loss from those laggards that drop out.

© 2023 The Economist Newspaper Limited. All rights reserved.

From The Economist, published under licence. The original content can be found on https://www.economist.com/business/2023/12/22/new-rules-for-americas-green-hydrogen-industry-are-controversial


New York City parkway crash kills 5 in Queens, police say

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Fox News Flash top headlines are here. Check out what's clicking on Foxnews.com.

Five people died when the car they were in crashed on a New York City parkway Monday morning, police said.

The Mazda was heading north on the Cross Island Parkway in the borough of Queens when it collided with another vehicle just before 6 a.m. 

The five people in the car were pronounced dead at the crash scene near the Whitestone Bridge, according to the New York Police Department.

16-YEAR-OLD DRIVER IN DEADLY NEW YORK CAR CRASH DID NOT HAVE LICENSE, MAY HAVE BEEN ASLEEP: POLICE

Photos from the scene show the car overturned on the roadway.

New York Police Department vehicle

A New York Police Department vehicle is seen parked near Union Square Park in Manhattan in May 2023. Police have not yet disclosed the identities of the deceased, and an investigation is underway. (Photo by Nicolas Economou/NurPhoto via Getty Images)

The driver of the other vehicle was hospitalized in stable condition. Police did not immediately identify the five people who were killed.

NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CRANE CATCHES ON FIRE BEFORE COLLAPSE

An investigation into the crash was continuing.


 


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug