Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : ASTQB-CMT
Exam Name : ASTQB Certified Mobile Tester
Vendor Name : ASTQB
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Exam Code : ASTQB-MT
Exam Name : ASTQB Certified Mobile Tester
Exam Duration : 60 Minutes
Number of Questions : 40
Passing Score : 65%
Format : Multiple Choice Questions

Learning Objectives for Introduction to Mobile Testing
1.2 Expectations from Mobile Users
MOB-1.2.1 (K2) Explain the expectations for a mobile application user and how this affects test prioritization
1.3 Challenges for Testers
MOB-1.3.1 (K2) Explain the challenges testers encounter in mobile application testing and how the environments and skills must change to address those challenges
MOB-1.3.2 (K2) Summarize the different types of mobile applications
1.5 Equipment Requirements
MOB-1.5.1 (K2) Explain how equivalence partitioning can be used to select devices for testing
1.6 Lifecycle Models
MOB-1.6.1 (K2) Describe how some software development lifecycle models are more appropriate for mobile applications

Mobile applications generally fall into two categories, those developed specifically to be native mobile applications and those that were designed to be viewed through a web browser on a mobile device. From the users viewpoint, there is no difference, although some browser-based applications may be optimized for the mobile device providing a richer (or at least more readable) user experience. From the developers and testers viewpoint, there are different challenges, goals and success criteria. This syllabus is focused on the applications specifically developed for use by a mobile device although there will be some discussion about applications that have become mobile despite the original intentions.
Mobile devices include any of the so-called hand-held devices including (dumb) mobile phones, smart phones and tablets/netbooks as well as devices that have been created for a specific use such as ereaders or a device used by a parcel delivery service that allows the driver to record delivery, the customer to sign and an image to be taken documenting the delivery. Mobile devices also extend to wearable items such as smart watches and glasses that allow access to specific applications and may include additional native functionality, such as telling time or improving vision. While some of the mobile application testing concepts discussed in this syllabus are applicable to wearable devices, wearable devices are not the focus of this syllabus. The field of mobile devices is continually expanding as new uses are devised and devices are created to support those uses

COURSE OUTLINE, COURSE CONTENTS, SYLLABUS

Introduction to Mobile Testing
Expectations from Mobile Users - Explain the expectations for a mobile application user and how this affects test prioritization Challenges for Testers
- Explain the challenges testers encounter in mobile application testing and how the environments and skills must change to address those challenges
- Summarize the different types of mobile applications
Equipment Requirements - Explain how equivalence partitioning can be used to select devices for testing
Lifecycle Models - Describe how some software development lifecycle models are more appropriate for mobile applications
Test Planning and Design
Identify Functions and Attributes
- Explain why use cases are a good source of testing requirements for mobile applications
Identify and Assess Risks
- Describe different approaches to risk analysis
Determine Coverage Goals
- Explain how coverage goals will influence the level and type of testing to be conducted
Identify Test Conditions and Set Scope
- Describe how test analysts should take the device and application into consideration when creating test conditions
Quality Characteristics for Mobile Testing
Functional Testing - For a given mobile testing project apply the appropriate test design techniques
- Recall the purpose of testing for the correctness of an application
- Explain the important considerations for planning security testing for a mobile application
- Summarize the concepts of perspectives and personas for use in mobile application testing
- Summarize how device differences may affect testing
- Explain the use of Teststorming for deriving test conditions
Non-Functional Testing - Create a test approach that would achieve stated performance testing goals
- Recall aspects of the application that should be tested during performance testing
- Explain why real devices are needed when simulators are used for testing
- For a given mobile testing project, select the appropriate criteria to be Verified with usability testing
- Explain the challenges for portability and reliability testing mobile applications
Environments and Tools
Tools - Recall the expected capabilities for mobile application testing tools
- Explain the use of generic tools in testing mobile applications
Environments and Protocols - Recall the sources of data for a mobile application
Specific Application-Based Environment Considerations
- Explain the differences between browser-based and native device applications
Real Devices, Simulators, Emulators and the Cloud
- Explain why testing is not conducted entirely on real devices
- For a given mobile testing project, determine how and when to use simulators/emulators during testing
- Recall how to verify the reliability of a simulator/emulator
- For a given mobile testing project, determine how and when to use cloud-based testing
Performance Test Tools and Support - Explain how the cloud can be used to support performance testing
- Explain the types of data a performance tool needs to be able to create and track
Future-Proofing
Expect Rapid Growth - Recall ways in which the mobile application and device market will expand
- Recall areas in which user expectations will increase
Build for Change - Summarize the considerations for building a flexible testing framework
- Analyze a given mobile testing project and determine the appropriate activities to reduce maintenance costs while enabling wide product adoption
Plan for the Future - Explain how lifecycle models are likely to change and how this will affect testing
Anticipating the Future - Recall the ways in which testers will need to adapt



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug