Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Name : Association of Social Work Boards
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ASWB exam Format | ASWB Course Contents | ASWB Course Outline | ASWB exam Syllabus | ASWB exam Objectives

There are 170 questions on the ASWB examination, but only 150 count toward your score.

The content outline for each ASWB examination defines the content that will be measured on the exam. The content outlines were developed through the practice analyses conducted with licensed social workers in a variety of practice settings across the United States and Canada.

Content areas are the broad areas of content knowledge that are measured by each exam. The content areas structure the content for exam construction and score reporting purposes. When receiving exam scores, failing candidates are given feedback on their performance on each content area of the exam.

Competencies describe meaningful sets of knowledge, skills, and abilities that are important to the job of a social worker within each content area.

Knowledge, skills, and abilities statements (KSAs) structure the content of the exam for item development purposes. The KSAs provide further details about the nature and range of exam content that is included in the competencies. Each KSA describes a discrete knowledge component that is the basis for individual exam questions that may be used to measure the competency.

Reduce exam anxiety by helping you understand exam construction as well as exam content areas and the structure of questions
Demystify this high-stakes exam with a reassuring inside look at how the exams are created—complete with an in-depth look at example questions, how they work, and how you can apply your knowledge to the exam

Assist you with your exam preparation by guiding you through the process of creating your own customized study plan

Licensing exams are a crucial component in nearly every licensed profession, and social work is no exception.

The exams provided by the Association of Social Work Boards are used in every U.S. state, as well as the District of Columbia, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and Manitoba.

ASWB administers five categories of social work licensure examinations:




Advanced Generalist


Not every jurisdiction uses all five categories, so candidates must be sure to check with their individual boards to find out which examinations are appropriate for the jurisdiction in which they are seeking licensure.

Each examination contains 170 four-option, multiple-choice questions designed to measure minimum competencies at four categories of practice. Only 150 of the 170 items are scored; the remaining 20 questions are pretest items included to measure their effectiveness as items on future examinations. These pretest items are scattered randomly throughout the examination. Candidates have four hours to complete the test, which is administered electronically.

Exams are administered by appointment at Pearson Professional Centers worldwide. There are no fixed administration dates. Instead, registered candidates can go to Pearson VUEs website to schedule a time to take the test.

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Social-Work-Board of certification


Saint Louis University School of Social Work

Saint Louis University's School of Social Work provides students an academic experience rooted in research, real-world experience and a focus on humanity.

Built upon an unwavering commitment to social justice, SLU's School of Social Work is a leader in integrating practice and education with faculty members who have made substantial contributions to the profession. Interactive teaching methods integrate community‐based practice with classroom activities and discussions.

Top-Notch Academics

Founded in 1930, the school has since expanded its academic offerings to include programs in applied behavior analysis, urban planning and development, and criminology and criminal justice while maintaining its highly-ranked social work programs.

  • SLU's Master of Social Work (M.S.W.) program is ranked nationally in the top 20% of social work programs.
  • SLU's Master of Arts in Criminology and Criminal Justice (M.A.C.C.J.) program uniquely focuses on the humanity of those involved in and impacted by crime and violence and provides students the opportunity to serve in the St. Louis community.
  • SLU's Master of Science in Applied Behavior Analysis (M.S.A.B.A.) graduates have a Board Certified Behavior Analyst exam pass rate of 87%, significantly higher than the national average.
  • Our programs have formed partnerships with a wide variety of agencies and organizations all over St. Louis City and St. Louis County to provide students with diverse options for their internship and/or externship experiences.
  • Many of their programs offer accelerated options, honors courses and minors.
  • Submit An Application to the School of Social Work

    Investing in Your Future

    Saint Louis University recently reduced this program's tuition through a major strategic investment to increase the number of individuals committed to enhancing healthy communities. Through their social work, criminal justice and applied behavior analysis programs, the School of Social Work is committed to furthering this mission. They now offer packaged pricing where there are no additional fees, and your tuition is locked in for the duration of your program. Their new flat-rate tuition pricing is:

  • $48,000 for those pursuing an M.S.W. who have an undergraduate degree in something other than social work (Foundational M.S.W.).
  • $30,000 for those pursuing an M.S.W. with a Bachelor of Science in Social Work from a CSWE-accredited undergraduate program and who earned a B or better in their social work courses. (Advanced Standing).
  • $39,000 for those pursuing their M.S.A.B.A. program.
  • $33,000 for those pursuing their M.A.C.C.J. program. 
  • 100% of new graduate students beginning in 2023 will receive scholarship support thanks to their generous alumni and benefactors. You may also qualify for federal graduate student loans and apply for assistantship and fellowship opportunities. Plus, incoming students receive one semester of paid practicum experience while fulfilling course requirements.

    Online Doctorate in Social Work

    No result found, try new keyword!Clinical social workers must be licensed in every state, and most require some sort of licensure or certification for nonclinical social workers as well. Although licensure requirements vary by ...

    School of Social Work


    The School of Social Work focuses on leading-edge research and innovative, internationally recognised qualifications in social work, social policy, and social service supervision.

    We work closely with non-government organisations, Te Whatu Ora – Health New Zealand and Oranga Tamariki Ministry for Children. Their students are placed in these organisations for their practical field education and their graduates have careers with them.

    Te Tiriti o Waitangi at Massey

    We are deeply committed to being a Tiriti-led university, demonstrating authentic leadership in contemporary Aotearoa New Zealand as they uphold te Tiriti o Waitangi, the founding document of their nation, and its principles through their practice. They embrace this not just as an obligation but as a real opportunity for the nation and its people.

    Te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Te Kunenga ki Pūrehuroa – The Treaty of Waitangi at Massey

    Study with us

    From addiction support to child protection, aged care to mental health services, Massey prepares you for a rewarding lifelong career in social work. Their Bachelor of Social Work and Master of Applied Social Work both lead to registration as a social worker in New Zealand.

    Explore by area of interest

    Explore a selection of qualifications relating to your interests.

    Useful forms for students and graduates

    To study at the School of Social Work, you may be asked to fill out a form. We’ve gathered all forms here.

    Entry into the Bachelor of Social Work Part Two, Three or Four

    Thesis planning for social work and social policy

    Field education planning – BSW and MASW Auckland

    Field education planning – BSW distance

    Field education planning – MASW distance

    For Massey graduates applying for registration in another country, the School of Social Work will provide a transcript – the academic certification for your overseas registration process. There is an administration fee.

    Request an overseas registration transcript

    Meet their graduates “Completing a Master of Social Work has taught me how to do research. It has enabled me to explore what I am passionate about: Whānau Ora, whānau-centred practice, kaupapa Māori practice and going beyond crisis intervention by focussing on the moemoeā (dreams and aspirations) of whānau. ”

    James Martin Cherrington

    Ko Ngapuhi te Iwi, Ko Ngati Hine te hapu. Māori, Niuean, Samoan, Irish and English.

    “I heard from other Pasifika people that achieving is the norm at Massey. The Pasifika values at Massey I have seen and experienced are reciprocity and relationships, service and inclusion, respect, spirituality, leadership, family (aiga, famili) and the talanoa (korero, discussion) sessions.” “Completing my Master of Social Work with Massey was a life changing journey for both me and my family. It was challenging but allowed me to explore and discover issues within my community, which has enhanced my social work practice and experiences.”

    Jasmin Marie Albert

    Ngā Puhi, Ngāti Whātua, Te-Whānau-ā-Apanui

    Meet their graduates “Studying at Massey University has provided me a broad and sound knowledge of what social work is all about. The day of a social worker is never the same, encountering different situations and people impacted by social and personal issues.”

    Kaysha Whakarau

    Ngāti Raukawa rāua ko Ngāti Ruanui

    “I had thought about getting a qualification in youth work, but then someone suggested social work as it provided greater scope in terms of areas I could work in.” “I chose social work without fully understanding the concept, but I knew it was about people and I knew that people mattered.” Who they are

    Our people make us who they are.

    Professor Kieran O'Donoghue Professor Kieran O'Donoghue

    Head of School of Social Work

    Kieran O'Donoghue is renowned nationally and internationally for his research in social work theory and practice, social work supervision, and the social work profession. He is a registered social worker and a member of Aotearoa New Zealand Association of Social Workers (ANZASW).


    The school's researchers work on significant issues facing society and social work practice today, spanning the areas of human rights and social justice, social work practice, and social work profession. They engage in international research and consultations across many countries.

    Here's an example of how their academics create and share new knowledge.

    Relational resources for change: New futures for youth with complex needs

    Professor Jackie Sanders, Professor Robyn Munford

    A major programme to create culturally responsive resources for practitioners working with vulnerable youth. Researchers will work alongside practitioners and youth, using state-of-the-art methods to design and test resources. The resources will then be integrated into new and existing services.

    News article – New research funding will help to address future needs of NZ

    New Zealand Social Workers Registration Board

    Our professional qualifications are accredited by the Social Workers Registration Board. Students who complete the Bachelor of Social Work or Master of Applied Social Work can immediately apply for provisional registration as a registered social worker.

    Learn more

    Paper people around globe International Association of Schools of Social Work

    Massey’s School of Social Work is a member of the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW). They also have staff members on the Asia Pacific Association for Social Work Education (APASWE) committee.

    Learn more

    Social media

    Connect with the College of Health on:

    Looking for a staff member? Visit their staff directory or use Expertise search.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug