Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : AZ-120
Exam Name : Planning and Administering Microsoft Azure for SAP Workloads
Vendor Name : Microsoft
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AZ-120 test Format | AZ-120 Course Contents | AZ-120 Course Outline | AZ-120 test Syllabus | AZ-120 test Objectives


The content of this test was updated on July 21, 2020. Please obtain the test skills outline below to see what changed.

Migrate SAP Workloads to Azure (10-15%)

Design an Azure solution to support SAP Workloads (20-25%)

Build and deploy Azure for SAP Workloads (35-40%)

Validate Azure infrastructure for SAP Workloads (10-15%)

Operationalize Azure SAP architecture (10-15%)



Migrate SAP Workloads to Azure (10-15%)

Create an inventory of existing SAP landscapes

 network inventory

 security inventory

 computing inventory

 operations system inventory

 resiliency and availability inventory

 SAP Database Inventory

 SAP Landscape architecture

 SAP workload performance SLA and metrics

 migration considerations

Design a migration strategy

 certified and support SAP Hana hardware directory

 design criteria for Tailored Datacenter Integration (TDI) v4 and v5 solutions

 databox with import and export

 HANA System Replication (HSR)

 ASR for SAP

 backup and restore methods and solutions

 infrastructure optimization for migration

Design an Azure Solution to Support SAP Workloads (20-25%)

Design a core infrastructure solution in Azure to support SAP workloads

 network topology requirements

 security requirements

 virtual or bare metal

 compute

 operating system requirements

 support SAP version

 storage requirements

 proximity placement group

 infrastructure requirements

Design Azure infrastructure services to support SAP workloads

 backup and restoration requirements

 SLA/High Availability

 data protection (EFS, LRS/GRS, Availability Zones)

 compliance

 monitoring

 licensing

 application interfaces

 dependencies

Design a resilient Azure solution to support SAP workloads

 HA models supported in HANA (N+N, N+0 and N+1)

 application servers

 SAP Central services

 availability sets

 availability zones

 Disaster Recovery (DR) with Hero Regions

 Database HA

Build and Deploy Azure for SAP Workloads (35-40%)

Automate deployment of Virtual Machines (VMs)

 Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template

 automated configuration of VM

 scripting with automation tools, including script development, script modification, and deployment dependencies

Implement and manage virtual networking

 IDS/IPS for Azure

 routing fundamentals

 subnetting strategy

 isolation and segmentation for SAP landscape

Manage access and authentication on Azure

 custom domains

 Azure AD Identity Protection

 Azure AD join

 enterprise state roaming

 conditional access policies

 Role-based access control (RBAC)

 service principal

 Just in time access

Implement and manage identities

 Azure AD Connect

 AD Federation and single sign-on

 LDAP/Kerberos/SSH

 Linux VMs Active Directory domain membership mechanism

Monitor SAP workloads on Azure

 Azure Enhanced Monitoring Extension for SAP workloads

 Azure Monitors

 workspaces & metrics

Build & Deploy HA/DR infrastructure for SAP products

 ASCS/SCS deployments on Linux & Windows using either of the 4 supported

methodologies (SOFS with S2D, NetApp, Azure Files Premium, 3rd Party products that present a device as iSCS to OS)

 HA/DR scenarios for SAP HANA

 HA/DR scenarios for other RDBMS platforms

 HA for non-NetWeaver Products like IdM, SBOP BI/DS

 Where to use load balances & troubleshooting connectivity

Validate Azure Infrastructure for SAP Workloads (10-15%)

Perform infrastructure validation check

 JMeter, Avalanche for Mobility Services, Load Runner

 test implementation for SAP workloads

 verify network performance and throughput

 verify storage

 HWCCT (HANA)

 FIO and/or DD (AnyDB)

Perform operational readiness check

 backup and restore

 High Availability checks

 failover test

 DR test

 print test

Operationalize Azure SAP Architecture (10-15%)

Optimize performance

 SAP workloads on Azure using ABAPmeter

 storage structure

 SAP workloads on Azure support pre-requisites

 scheduled maintenance for planned outages

 recovery plan for unplanned outages

 SAP application and infrastructure housekeeping (i.e. snapshots on OS volumes)

 bandwidth adjustment for ExpressRoute

 IPtables and GlobalReach for HANA Large Instances (HLI)

Migrate SAP workloads to Azure

 migration strategy

 Azure Site Recovery (ASR)

 private and public IP addresses, network routes, network interface, subnets, and virtual network

 storage configuration

 source and target environments preparation

 backup and restore of data

Migrate SAP Workloads to Azure (10-15%)

Create an inventory of existing SAP landscapes

 network inventory

 security inventory

 computing inventory

 operations system inventory

 resiliency and availability inventory

 SAP Database Inventory

 SAP Landscape architecture

 SAP workload performance SLA and metrics

 migration considerations

Design a migration strategy

 certified and support SAP Hana hardware directory

 design criteria for Tailored Datacenter Integration (TDI) v4 and v5 solutions

 databox with import and export

 HANA System Replication (HSR)

 ASR for SAP

 backup and restore methods and solutions

 infrastructure optimization for migration

Design an Azure Solution to Support SAP Workloads (20-25%)

Design a core infrastructure solution in Azure to support SAP workloads

 network topology requirements

 security requirements

 virtual or bare metal

 compute

 operating system requirements

 support SAP version

 storage requirements

 proximity placement group

 infrastructure requirements

Design Azure infrastructure services to support SAP workloads

 backup and restoration requirements

 SLA/High Availability

 data protection (EFS, LRS/GRS, Availability Zones)

 compliance

 monitoring

 licensing

 application interfaces

 dependencies

Design a resilient Azure solution to support SAP workloads

 HA models supported in HANA (N+N, N+0 and N+1)

 application servers

 SAP Central services

 availability sets

 availability zones

 Disaster Recovery (DR) with Hero Regions

 Database HA

Build and Deploy Azure for SAP Workloads (35-40%)

Automate deployment of Virtual Machines (VMs)

 Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template

 automated configuration of VM

 scripting with automation tools, including script development, script modification, and deployment dependencies

Implement and manage virtual networking

 IDS/IPS for Azure

 routing fundamentals

 subnetting strategy

 isolation and segmentation for SAP landscape

Manage access and authentication on Azure

 custom domains

 Azure AD Identity Protection

 Azure AD join

 enterprise state roaming

 conditional access policies

 Role-based access control (RBAC)

 service principal

 just in time access

Implement and manage identities

 Azure AD Connect

 AD Federation and single sign-on

 LDAP/Kerberos/SSH

 Linux VMs Active Directory domain membership mechanism

Monitor SAP workloads on Azure

 Azure Enhanced Monitoring Extension for SAP workloads

 Azure Monitors

 workspaces & metrics

Validate Azure Infrastructure for SAP Workloads (10-15%)

Perform infrastructure validation check

 JMeter, AvalanchAvalanche for Mobility Services, Load Runner

 test implementation for SAP workloads

 verify network performance and throughput

 verify storage

 HWCCT (HanaHANA)

 FIO and/or DD (AnyDB)

Perform operational readiness check

 backup and restore

 high availability checks

 failover test

 DR test

 print test

Operationalize Azure SAP Architecture (10-15%)

Optimize performance

 SAP workloads on Azure using ABAPmeter

 storage structure

 SAP workloads on Azure support pre-requisites

 scheduled maintenance for planned outages

 recovery plan for unplanned outages

 SAP application and infrastructure housekeeping (i.e. snapshots on OS volumes)

 bandwidth adjustment for ExpressRoute

 IPtables and GlobalReach for HANA Large Instances (HLI)

Migrate SAP workloads to Azure

 migration strategy

 Azure Site Recovery (ASR)

 private and public IP addresses, network routes, network interface, subnets, and virtual

network

 storage configuration

 source and target environments preparation

 backup and restore of data



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug