Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : AZ-220
Exam Name : Microsoft Azure IoT Developer
Vendor Name : Microsoft
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AZ-220 test Format | AZ-220 Course Contents | AZ-220 Course Outline | AZ-220 test Syllabus | AZ-220 test Objectives


The content of this test will be updated on September 24, 2020. Please obtain the test skills outline below to see what will be changing.
Implement the IoT solution infrastructure (15-20%)
Provision and manage devices (20-25%)
Implement Edge (15-20%)
Process and manage data (15-20%)
Monitor, troubleshoot, and optimize IoT solutions (15-20%)
Implement security (15-20%)

Implement the IoT Solution Infrastructure (15-20%)
Create and configure an IoT Hub
 create an IoT Hub
 register a device
 configure a device twin
 configure IoT Hub tier and scaling
Build device messaging and communication
 build messaging solutions by using SDKs (device and service)
 implement device-to-cloud communication
 implement cloud-to-device communication
 configure file upload for devices
Configure physical IoT devices
 recommend an appropriate protocol based on device specifications
 configure device networking, topology, and connectivity
Provision and manage devices (20-25%)
Implement the Device Provisioning Service (DPS)
 create a Device Provisioning Service
 create a new enrollment in DPS
 manage allocation policies by using Azure Functions
 link an IoT Hub to the DPS
Manage the device lifecycle
 provision a device by using DPS
 deprovision an autoenrollment
 decommission (disenroll) a device
Manage IoT devices by using IoT Hub
 manage devices list in the IoT Hub device registry
 modify device twin tags and properties
 trigger an action on a set of devices by using IoT Hub Jobs and Direct Methods
 set up Automatic Device Management of IoT devices at scale
Build a solution by using IoT Central
 define a device type in Azure IoT Central
 configure rules and actions in Azure IoT Central
 define the operator view
 add and manage devices from IoT Central
 monitor devices
 custom and industry-focused application templates
 monitor application health using metrics
Implement Edge (15-20%)
Set up and deploy an IoT Edge device
 create a device identity in IoT Hub
 deploy a single IoT device to IoT Edge
 create a deployment for IoT Edge devices
 install container runtime on IoT devices
 define and implement deployment manifest
 update security daemon and runtime
 provision IoT Edge devices with DPS
 IoT Edge automatic deployments
 deploy on constrained devices
 secure IoT Edge solutions
 deploy production certificates
Develop modules
 create and configure an Edge module
 deploy a module to an Edge device
 publish an IoT Edge module to an Azure Container Registry
Configure an IoT Edge device
 select and deploy an appropriate gateway pattern
 implement Industrial IoT solutions with modules like Modbus and OPC
 implement module-to-module communication
 implement and configure offline support (including local storage)
Process and manage data (15-20%)
Configure routing in Azure IoT Hub
 implement message enrichment in IoT Hub
 configure routing of IoT Device messages to endpoints
 define and test routing queries
 integrate with Event Grid
Configure stream processing
 create ASA for data and stream processing of IoT data
 process and filter IoT data by using Azure Functions
 configure Stream Analytics outputs
Configure an IoT solution for Time Series Insights (TSI)
 implement solutions to handle telemetry and time-stamped data
 create an Azure Time Series Insights (TSI) environment
 connect the IoT Hub and the Time Series Insights (TSI)
Monitor, troubleshoot, and optimize IoT solutions (15-20%)
Configure health monitoring
 configure metrics in IoT Hub
 set up diagnostics logs for Azure IoT Hub
 query and visualize tracing by using Azure Monitor
 use Azure Policy definitions for IoT Hub
Troubleshoot device communication
 establish maintenance communication
 verify device telemetry is received by IoT Hub
 validate device twin properties, tags and direct methods
 troubleshoot device disconnects and connects
Perform end-to-end solution testing and diagnostics
 estimate the capacity required for each service in the solution
 conduct performance and stress testing
Implement security (15-20%)
Implement device authentication in the IoT Hub
 choose an appropriate form of authentication
 manage the X.509 certificates for a device
 manage the symmetric keys for a device
Implement device security by using DPS
 configure different attestation mechanisms with DPS
 generate and manage x.509 certificates for IoT Devices
 configure enrollment with x.509 certificates
 generate a TPM endorsements key for a device
 configure enrollment with symmetric keys
Implement Azure Security Center (ASC) for IoT
 enable ASC for IoT in Azure IoT Hub
 create security modules
 configure custom alerts



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug