Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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AZ-400 exam Format | AZ-400 Course Contents | AZ-400 Course Outline | AZ-400 exam Syllabus | AZ-400 exam Objectives


Design a DevOps strategy (20-25%)

Recommend a migration and consolidation strategy for DevOps tools

 analyze existing artifact (e.g., deployment packages, NuGet, Maven, npm) and container repositories

 analyze existing test management tools

 analyze existing work management tools

 recommend migration and integration strategies for artifact repositories, source control, test management, and work management

Design and implement an Agile work management approach

 identify and recommend project metrics, KPIs, and DevOps measurements (e.g., cycle time, lead time, WIP limit)

 implement tools and processes to support Agile work management

 mentor team members on Agile techniques and practices

 recommend an organization structure that supports scaling Agile practices

 recommend in-team and cross-team collaboration mechanisms

Design a quality strategy

 analyze existing quality environment

 identify and recommend quality metrics

 recommend a strategy for feature flag lifecycle

 recommend a strategy for measuring and managing technical debt

 recommend changes to team structure to optimize quality

 recommend performance testing strategy

Design a secure development process

 inspect and validate code base for compliance

 inspect and validate infrastructure for compliance

 recommend a secure development strategy

 recommend tools and practices to integrate code security validation (e.g., static code analysis)

 recommend tools and practices to integrate infrastructure security validation

Design a tool integration strategy

 design a license management strategy (e.g., VSTS users, concurrent pipelines, test environments, open source software licensing, third-party DevOps tools and services, package management licensing)

 design a strategy for end-to-end traceability from work items to working software

 design a strategy for integrating monitoring and feedback to development teams

 design an authentication and access strategy

 design a strategy for integrating on-premises and cloud resources

Implement DevOps development processes (20-25%)

Design a version control strategy

 recommend branching models

 recommend version control systems

 recommend code flow strategy

Implement and integrate source control

 integrate external source control

 integrate source control into third-party continuous integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD) systems

Implement and manage build infrastructure

 implement private and hosted agents

 integrate third party build systems

 recommend strategy for concurrent pipelines

 manage Azure pipeline configuration (e.g., agent queues, service endpoints, pools, webhooks)

Implement code flow

 implement pull request strategies

 implement branch and fork strategies

 configure branch policies

Implement a mobile DevOps strategy

 manage mobile target device sets and distribution groups

 manage target UI test device sets

 provision tester devices for deployment

 create public and private distribution groups

Managing application configuration and secrets

 implement a secure and compliant development process

 implement general (non-secret) configuration data

 manage secrets, tokens, and certificates

 implement applications configurations (e.g., Web App, Azure Kubernetes Service, containers)

 implement secrets management (e.g., Web App, Azure Kubernetes Service, containers, Azure Key Vault)

 implement tools for managing security and compliance in the pipeline

Implement continuous integration (10-15%)

Manage code quality and security policies

 monitor code quality

 configure build to report on code coverage

 manage automated test quality

 manage test suites and categories

 monitor quality of tests

 integrate security analysis tools (e.g., SonarQube, White Source Bolt, Open Web

Application Security Project)

Implement a container build strategy

 create deployable images (e.g., Docker, Hub, Azure Container Registry)

 analyze and integrate Docker multi-stage builds

Implement a build strategy

 design build triggers, tools, integrations, and workflow

 implement a hybrid build process

 implement multi-agent builds

 recommend build tools and configuration (e.g. Azure Pipelines, Jenkins)

 set up an automated build workflow

Implement continuous delivery (10-15%)

Design a release strategy

 recommend release tools

 identify and recommend release approvals and gates

 recommend strategy for measuring quality of release and release process

 recommend strategy for release notes and documentation

 select appropriate deployment pattern

Set up a release management workflow

 automate inspection of health signals for release approvals by using release gates

 configure automated integration and functional test execution

 create a release pipeline (e.g., Azure Kubernetes Service, Service Fabric, WebApp)

 create multi-phase release pipelines

 integrate secrets with release pipeline

 provision and configure environments

 manage and modularize tasks and templates (e.g., task and variable groups)

Implement an appropriate deployment pattern

 implement blue-green deployments

 implement canary deployments

 implement progressive exposure deployments

 scale a release pipeline to deploy to multiple endpoints (e.g., deployment groups, Azure Kubernetes Service, Service Fabric)

Implement dependency management (5-10%)

Design a dependency management strategy

 recommend artifact management tools and practices (Azure Artifacts, npm, Maven, Nuget)

 abstract common packages to enable sharing and reuse

 inspect codebase to identify code dependencies that can be converted to packages

 identify and recommend standardized package types and versions across the solution

 refactor existing build pipelines to implement version strategy that publishes packages

Manage security and compliance

 inspect open source software packages for security and license compliance to align with corporate standards (e.g., GPLv3)

 configure build pipeline to access package security and license rating (e.g., Black Duck, White Source)

 configure secure access to package feeds

Implement application infrastructure (15-20%)

Design an infrastructure and configuration management strategy

 analyze existing and future hosting infrastructure

 analyze existing Infrastructure as Code (IaC) technologies

 design a strategy for managing technical debt on templates

 design a strategy for using transient infrastructure for parts of a delivery lifecycle

 design a strategy to mitigate infrastructure state drift

Implement Infrastructure as Code (IaC)

 create nested resource templates

 manage secrets in resource templates

 provision Azure resources

 recommend an Infrastructure as Code (IaC) strategy

 recommend appropriate technologies for configuration management (e.g., ARM

Templates, Terraform, Chef, Puppet, Ansible)

Manage Azure Kubernetes Service infrastructure

 provision Azure Kubernetes Service (e.g., using ARM templates, CLI)

 create deployment file for publishing to Azure Kubernetes Service (e.g., kubectl, Helm)

 develop a scaling plan

Implement infrastructure compliance and security

 implement compliance and security scanning

 prevent drift by using configuration management tools

 automate configuration management by using PowerShell Desired State Configuration (DSC)

 automate configuration management by using a VM Agent with custom script extensions

 set up an automated pipeline to inspect security and compliance

Implement continuous feedback (10-15%)

Recommend and design system feedback mechanisms

 design practices to measure end-user satisfaction (e.g., Send a Smile, app analytics)

 design processes to capture and analyze user feedback from external sources (e.g., Twitter, Reddit, Help Desk)

 design routing for client application crash report data

 recommend monitoring tools and technologies

 recommend system and feature usage tracking tools

Implement process for routing system feedback to development teams

 configure crash report integration for client applications

 develop monitoring and status dashboards

 implement routing for client application crash report data

 implement tools to track system usage, feature usage, and flow

 integrate and configure ticketing systems with development team's work management

system (e.g., IT Service Management connector, ServiceNow Cloud Management, App Insights work items)

Optimize feedback mechanisms

 analyze alerts to establish a baseline

 analyze telemetry to establish a baseline

 perform live site reviews and capture feedback for system outages

 perform ongoing tuning to reduce meaningless or non-actionable alerts



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug