Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : AZ-801
Exam Name : Configuring Windows Server Hybrid Advanced Services
Vendor Name : Microsoft
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AZ-801 exam Format | AZ-801 Course Contents | AZ-801 Course Outline | AZ-801 exam Syllabus | AZ-801 exam Objectives


Title: Microsoft AZ-801 Configuring Windows Server Hybrid Advanced Services

Test Detail:
The Microsoft AZ-801 exam is designed to validate the knowledge and skills required to configure advanced services in a Windows Server hybrid environment. This certification is intended for IT professionals who work with Windows Server and are responsible for implementing and managing hybrid solutions.

Course Outline:
The Microsoft AZ-801 course provides participants with a comprehensive understanding of configuring advanced services in a Windows Server hybrid environment. The following is a general outline of the key areas covered in the certification program:

1. Implementing Windows Server Hybrid Infrastructure:
- Introduction to Windows Server hybrid scenarios and solutions
- Implementing Azure Active Directory (AAD) Connect for directory synchronization
- Configuring Azure AD authentication and integration with Windows Server Active Directory

2. Implementing Windows Server Hybrid Identity:
- Configuring Azure AD Connect with password hash synchronization
- Implementing pass-through authentication and federated identity
- Managing user accounts and groups in a hybrid environment

3. Implementing Hybrid Network Connectivity:
- Configuring Azure Virtual Network (VNet) peering and virtual network gateways
- Implementing Azure ExpressRoute for secure and dedicated network connectivity
- Configuring site-to-site and point-to-site VPN connections

4. Implementing Hybrid Application Connectivity:
- Configuring Azure Application Gateway for load balancing and traffic management
- Implementing Azure Front Door for global application delivery and routing
- Configuring hybrid connectivity for web applications and APIs

Exam Objectives:
The Microsoft AZ-801 exam assesses candidates' knowledge and skills in configuring advanced services in a Windows Server hybrid environment. The exam objectives include, but are not limited to:

1. Implementing Windows Server hybrid infrastructure and Azure AD integration.
2. Configuring hybrid identity with Azure AD Connect and authentication methods.
3. Establishing hybrid network connectivity using Azure Virtual Network and ExpressRoute.
4. Configuring hybrid application connectivity with Azure Application Gateway and Front Door.

Syllabus:
The Microsoft AZ-801 certification program typically includes comprehensive training provided by Microsoft or authorized training partners. The syllabus provides a breakdown of the subjects covered throughout the course, including specific learning objectives and milestones. The syllabus may include the following components:

- Introduction to Microsoft AZ-801 exam overview and certification process
- Implementing Windows Server Hybrid Infrastructure
- Implementing Windows Server Hybrid Identity
- Implementing Hybrid Network Connectivity
- Implementing Hybrid Application Connectivity
- exam Preparation and Practice Tests
- Final Microsoft AZ-801 Certification Exam



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Microsoft Hybrid PDF Braindumps

 

Microsoft: Office 12 Will Handle PDF

Steven Sinofsky, the senior vice president for Office, made the announcement at the weekend's Microsoft MVP Global Summit in Redmond, Wash., a gathering of some 3,000 whom the company's designated as its Most Valuable Professionals.

Users will be able to save documents in PDF form by using the "Save As" command from within Office applications, said Sinofsky. "Instead of printing the document and faxing it, or overnight-mailing it, customers can save a PDF and electronically distribute a read-only, 'as-printed' representation of the document," he added in a statement.

Most of the applications that will be included in Office 12, as well as stand-alone programs which are part of Microsoft Office, will have the new capability, said Sinofsky, including Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access, InfoPath, Visio, Publisher, and OneNote.

According to Betsy Frost, Microsoft's general manager of marketing, the move is a reaction to customer demand. "We've had a very significant amount of customer feedback about PDF," she said, "with up to 120,000 requests a month for the feature from Office users.

Microsoft is late to the PDF party. Other Windows application suites, including Corel's WordPerfect Office, Sun's StarOffice, and the free-of-charge, open-source OpenOffice.org, already have PDF publishing capabilities.

Adobe, which claims that the file type is the most popular on the Internet, made PDF available in a public specification in 1993; under that specification, Adobe lets other developers' software create PDFs without paying a licensing free.

"Microsoft's adding PDF validates the role of PDF in customer workflow," said Pam Deziel, the director of platform strategies for San Jose, Calif.-based Adobe.

Adobe and Microsoft have been longtime partners, but the two are increasingly at odds over turf such as forms -- Microsoft jumped into the market in 2003 with its InfoPath -- and photo editing. In mid-September, for instance, Microsoft said it was gunning for Adobe's PhotoShop with its own graphics package, code named "Acrylic Graphic Designer" for the moment.

Another direct attack on Adobe could come from Metro, a combination of file format, document viewer, and page description language planned as part of Windows Vista, the next-generation desktop client due out in late 2006.

"It's a natural part of business that Microsoft is entering areas where Adobe has products," Deziel said. "In the future, we'll be both cooperating and competing with Microsoft." When asked whether Adobe, which is in the final process of a $3.4 billion merger with Macromedia, is afraid of Microsoft intruding on its turf, Deziel side-stepped the question by simply saying "Microsoft is a $40 billion monopoly, and a formidable opponent."

Microsoft's addition of PDF to the file format list of Office could also be seen as a way to smooth relations with governments and businesses demanding open-source file formats for saving documents. Massachusetts, for example, has banned the purchase of software which doesn't save in "open" document formats; by Massachusetts' definition, PDF is such a format.

Microsoft, however, denied that the PDF add to Office 12 was a response to Massachusetts. "First and foremost this was an answer to their customers," said Microsoft's Frost.

Yet if the fallout was better relations with government agencies and private enterprises after open-standard file formats, all the better. "One of the key trends that businesses and government have is the sharing of information across organizational boundaries. With PDF, businesses or even government can take advantage of that capability [to share documents," Frost added.

Microsoft has said it hopes to ship Office 12 in late 2006.


Microsoft 365 app for iOS now lets you merge PDF files0 0

A Microsoft 365 logo next to an Apple logo

Office Insiders trialing preview updates on iOS and iPadOS can download the latest Microsoft 365 app version with a great new feature: PDF Merge. Now you can grab several PDF documents and fuse them into one large file without downloading extra PDF managers.

You can try PDF merging in the Microsoft 365 application by downloading version 2.76 or newer (build 23062603). Next, head to the PDF toolbox, select the merge command, pick the files you need, and tap continue. Arrange the files or add more, then tap Merge and watch the app doing its software magic. After that, the Microsoft 365 app will automatically save the merged PDF file on your device, allowing you to find and retrieve it for further use or processing using existing PDF capabilities.

A screenshot showing how to merge PDFs in the Microsoft 365 app

It is worth noting that the App Store on iOS and iPadOS is full of PDF-editing apps with document merging capabilities. Those features often require signing up for a paid subscription, and Microsoft is no exception—PDF merging is only available for Microsoft 365 subscribers. You can download and use the app for free, but attempting to fuse two or more PDF documents into one will result in Microsoft politely asking you to pay.

The updated Microsoft 365 app for iOS is rolling out to insiders gradually. Microsoft practices such an approach to ensure things are working smoothly. It is weird to see extra caution in the program for testing preview updates, but it is the sad reality of Microsoft's insider program.

Merging PDF files is not the only new PDF-related feature in the Microsoft 365 app. Earlier this month, the company introduced the ability to extract separate pages from PDF documents on Android. You can learn more about the feature in their dedicated coverage. Those willing to become Microsoft 365 insiders can visit the program's official website to get started.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug